Psychology 3301F/G Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: World Economic Forum, Chronic Condition, Health Promotion

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Chapter 10: Prevention
Prevention programs were first established to prevent physical health problems
Many lifestyle factors are associated with many health problems, many prevention programs also focus on encouraging the
development of healthy habits
Efforts to introduce a healthy lifestyle are usually referred to as health promotion
Health promotion: programs designed to increase activities that are beneficial to many aspects of physical health
Community psychology: focuses on the reciprocal relations between individuals and the community in which they live
Had focused on the individual level
Mental disorders increase risk of physical illness
World Economic Forum estimates global cost of mental health in 2010 2.5 trillion, grow to 6 by 2030
o Only sustainable way to reduce the burden of mental disorders is through prevention
Prevention programs often delivered by trained health service providers not CPs
Poverty
2003 UNICEF released more than 1 billion children worldwide suffer from poverty and are deprived from basic human rights
poverty is harmful to the physical, socio-economic and cognitive well being of children, youth
compared with other children, children living in poverty are more likely to be exposed to family disruption and violence
these children are more likely to be exposed to environmental pollutants, live in crowded areas
meta-analysis of the effectiveness of preschool prevention programs provided encouraging data indicating that positive
effects of intensive preschool interventions for children who are disadvantaged in multiple ways are sustained in short,
medium and LT
Approaches to Prevention
3 types of intervention with respect to illness by Commission of Chronic illness
o primary, secondary, tertiary
Primary = before development, preventive
Secondary = disorder is evident; refer to this intervention as treatment
Tertiary = respect to chronic illness focuses on rehabilitation
Distinction among prevention programs
o Universal preventive interventions
Universal preventive interventions = prevention program applied to an entire population, such as media awareness
campaign on the dangers of drinking and driving (like advertisements)
Selective Prevention interventions = program that targets those at elevated risk of developing disorder
o i.e. during outbreak having those entering a hospital wear a mask
idiated preetie iteretio = people ho do’t eet riteria, ut ho hae eleated risk and ma show detectable
but subclinical signs of disorder
o those coming into contact with infectious disorder requiring quarantine
prevention programs should be evaluated to determine whether they are meeting their goals
no universal definition of health depeds o perso’s otet
WHO defines mental health promotion activities as those designed to increase well-being and resilience
Primary prevention: provision of conditions conducive to good health
o Based on behavioural odel of futioig; does’t rel o oept of disease
Secondary prevention: prevention that targets groups of people who are identified as being at high risk
o Similar to selected and indicated prevention programs because it focuses on prevention in groups of people who
are high risk
Risk reduction model: approach to prevention that reduces risks and promotes protective factors
Risk factors: characteristics of the indiv or env that render a person more vulnerable to the developmental of a program or
disorder, or that are associated with more severe symptoms
Science of prevention requires knowledge of problem and its prevalence, variables that are causally involved in the
prole’s deelopet, the ehaiss of risk trasissio, ad partiularl sugroups that are high risk
Protective factors= characteristic of indiv or env that render a person less vulnerable to development
Once program designed, prevention scientist must carefully monitor its implementation to ensure that its conducted as
planned
Must assess whether program resulted in fewer people developing a problem than would have been the case without the
prevention program
Incidence rates = number of new cases of a specific problem
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