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Chapter 10

Chapter 10: Prevention

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 3301F/G
Professor
Graham Reid
Semester
Winter

Description
Psych 2301: Chapter 10 Textbook Notes - Prevention Health promotion: programs designed to increase activities that are beneficial to many as- pects of physical health Community psychology: a branch of psychology; focuses on research and practice on the reciprocal relations between individuals and the community in which they live Develop interventions at the level of the individual, couple, or family When a behaviour is followed by a positive outcome, that behaviour is likely to be repeated; neg- ative outcome following the behaviour decreases likelihood of it being repeated Parents who argued a lot, depressed mothers, and women who felt isolated tend to drop out of treatment Mental disorders increase the risk of physical illness The only suitable way to reduce the burden of mental disorders is through prevention Based on the principle of early intervention Prevention programs often run by service providers who arent CPs CPs role is program development, training, supervision, and evaluation Approaches to Prevention The Commission on Chronic Illness (1957) identified three types of illness/mental intervention: 1. Primary Intervention: occurs before a disorder has developed; designed to prevent the development of the disorder 2. Secondary Intervention: occurs when a disorder is evident; treatment 3. Tertiary Intervention: occurs with respect to a chronic disorder; focuses on rehabilita- tion and long-term adaptation CP focuses on secondary intervention; services have been added to primary (prevention of prob- lems) and tertiary (rehabilitation services) intervention Universal preventive intervention: a program applied to an entire population Media awareness campaign on the dangers of drinking and driving, promote daily exercise Selective preventive intervention: a prevention program that targets people who are at elevated risk of developing a particular disorder or problem Wearing masks in a hospital during an outbreak Indicated preventive intervention: a prevention program that targets people who dont meet criteria for a disorder, but who have elevated risk and may show detectable, but subclinical signs of the disorder WHO defines mental health promotion activities as those designed to increase well-being and re- silience Primary prevention: the provision of conditions conducive to good health Based on a behavioural model of functioning Doesnt rely on the concept of disease Secondary prevention: prevention that targets groups of people who are identified as being high risk Similar to selected and indicated prevention Risk reduction model: an approach to prevention that reduces risks and promotes protective factors 1 Psych 2301: Chapter 10 Textbook Notes - Prevention Risk factors: characteristics of the individual or the environment that render a person more vulnerable to the development of a problem or disorder, or that are associated with more severe symptoms (see pg. 367 for full list) Individual factors: poor nutrition, learning disability, poor social skills, etc. School context: bullying, peer rejection, deviant peer group, etc. Family/social factors: single parent, isolation, abuse, parental psychopathology, etc. Life events and situations: poverty, unemployment, witnessing trauma, migration etc. Community and cultural factors: isolation, community violence, etc. Once at-risk individuals are identified, they are targets of prevention programs designed to pro- tect them from developing the problem/disorder Utilize the identification of factors associated with resilience (protect high-risk individuals from developing the problem/disorder) to develop effective prevention program Protective factors: characteristics of the individual or the environment that render a person less vulnerable to the development of a problem or disorder Individual factors: optimism, school achievement, positive self-esteem, etc. School context: prosocial peer group, school norms against violence, etc. Family/social factors: family harmony, strong family norms and social values, etc. Life events and situations: good income and housing Community and cultural factors: access to support services, group participation, etc. Incidence rates: the number of new cases of a specific problem Use this number to determine if the program resulted in fewer people developing a problem than would have been the case without the prevention program Number needed to treat: the number of people who need to receive the intervention in or- der to prevent one person from developing the condition Promoting Evidence-Based Parenting Home Visiting Programs Olds (2002) offered services to low-income teenage single mothers expecting their first child Home visits by trained nurses during the pregnancy and after the childs birth Addressed the mothers concerns about the pregnancy, delivery, and care of the child Taught skills in self-care and child care; promoted use of the health care system Effective in achieving the immediate goal of improving parental care Benefits for children; reduces child abuse/neglect and in the long term, reduces the number of arrests, convictions, substance abuse problems, and sexual promiscuity at the age of 15 Improves mothers life by increasing labour force participation and her economic self-suffi- ciency Nurses completed only an average of 8 visits during the pregnancy and 25 visits during the childs first two years (visits lasted up to an hour and a half) Most beneficial effects found in greater risk families Triple P 2Psych 2301: Chapter 10 Textbook Notes - Prevention Developed by Matthew Sanders; the Triple PPositive Parenting Program Evidence-based parenting program designed to: a) Enhance the knowledge, skills, and confidence of parents; b) Promote safe environments for young people; and c) Promote childrens competence through positive parenting practices Multi-level system that provides interventions of gradually increasing intensity, according to the level of need Next step is to offer brief (one- or two-session) individualized services by phone or face to face; address parentsspecific concerns Parents of children with mild/moderate problems may benefit from a program delivered over four sessions by a primary health care provider Parents of children with more severe behaviour problems may require the Standard Triple P, either in a group or self-directed format The most intense intervention is the Enhanced Triple P; includes not only parenting skills but also additional sessions focused on parentsmood, coping, and partner support Developed for five different stages in development (infants, toddlers, preschoolers, children in elementary school, teenagers) Designed to enhance protective factors and decrease risk factors for child problems Parents are trained to develop positive relationships with their children, encourage desirable be- haviour, teach new skills, and manage misbehaviour Encouraged to adopt developmentally appropriate expectations about child
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