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Chapter 3

Psychology 3720F/G Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Social Comparison Theory, Decibel, First Aid

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Stelian Medianu

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Chapter 3
The context when will people help
Kitty Genovese event
Attacked in parking lots
Next day many people said they heard but it took by stander 30 minutes to call
Reginald denny
`pulled out of his car during a mob and brutally attacked
people saved him
if the people came 5 minutes later he would have died said the doctor
denny was white and the people that saved him were African American
these two examples illustrate the extreme in how people act
the basic tendencies of human may not be expressed the same inall situations
when will people help and when wont they
under standing people (when will they help)
dramtic range of human responses
selfish or selfless
critical power of the situation
what makes non intervention a normal response looked at bystander intervention
when a bystander observes a person in distress and helps or does not
the media portrayed the witness of kitty to be cold andun caring
however work done by latane and darley proved to be opposite
people do care but for a variety of reason they often decide not to intervene
a decision model of bystander intervention
latane and darley focused their research on the nature and sequence of decision
that bystanders must make when they witness emergencies
whether or not a person helps depends on the outcomes of a series of sequential
before they help they must go through a five step system
1. notice the event
2. interpret the event a needing help
3. assume personal responsibility
4. choose a way to help
5. implement a decision
failing at any step leads to a failure to help
step one: noticing that something is wrong
need to be in close proximity to be helpfulthings that influence the immediate
effects of helping
1. persons mind at the time of the incident
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a. a persons mood can focis attention inward or outward
2.nature of the situation of need and its ccapcity to grab the bystanders attention
a mood is a transitory feeling
people are more liklely to help when they are in a good modd than a bad mood
isen (1993)
proposed that people in a good mood analyze situations more deeply and fully
enhanced sensitivity might also make people more likely to notice someone elses
MCmillen Sander and Solomon study
Told them good or bad news about their grades
Then gave them another task
Turing ing the second task the researcher blasted noise
Those who were in a good mood were more attentive and looked up sooner
They noticed noise increase at a lower decibel
In a second study the first 2 steps were repeated
At the end they saw a woman and she needed help opening a door
Those who were in a good mood helped here even if she didn’t make a noise to
attract attention
Those in a bad mood only helped when she made a noise to attract attention
Good moods seem to make people more generally sensitive to others needs
The nature and clarity of the event itself can critically affect whether people will
help or not
Study:seeing full event or just after math
People either saw a person fall down stairs or saw only the aftermath
People were more likely to help after they saw the full event
This is because the fall is more attention getting than the aftermath
Step 2: interpreting a need for help
Nature of the event
Distress cue are likely to be interpreted as an emergency
Screaming is a very good sistress cue
It attracts attention but also shows that it is an emergency
With distress cues victims will receive help 75-100 percent of the time
There is little evidence for bystander apathy
Infroamtive social influence
When people use others behavior to gauge what to do
When the situation is ambiguous
Emergency situations are usally novel and unexpected
Latane and darley (1970)
The smoke in the room study
Social context was varied
Alone, two strangers or two conderates who did nothing
Th e major queston was whether students would respind in ways that would sabe
their own lives
75 percent of studenrts alone reported the smokes
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