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Chapter

Psychology 3720F/G Chapter Notes -Assault Weapon, Social Exclusion, Ostracism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 3720F/G
Professor
Stelian Medianu

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Psych 3720F – Final Exam
Lesson 10
Situational Elicitation of Aggressive Behaviour
Aggressive Cues
- Presence of aggression-related cues in environment promoted aggression
oIncreases accessibility of aggression-related thoughts
- Carlson et al. (1990) showed aggression-related objects still had effect when in neutral mood state
oNegative arousal may not be required for situational cues to have an effect
- Anderson et al. (1998) reaction time paradigm, show prime word then show target word
oWhen prime + target were aggression related, shorter RT (how fast say target out loud)
- Bargh & Pietromonaco (1982) presented words subliminally while P’s were doing other task
oLater they rated how hostile a particular behaviour was
oGreater % of subliminal words that were aggression-related, greater hostile ratings
- Bartholow et al. (2005) for cues to prime aggression, must be associated w/ aggression
oHunters vs. normal population are less sensitive to guns
oShow hunting weapon & assault weapon pics, asked to read word out loud (measure RT)
Hunters had greater weapons effect for assault weapons
Non-hunters had greatest effect for hunting weapons
oShow hunting or assault weapon, then play game where you noise blast opponent
oAggressive meaning of cues depends on the viwer
Social Exclusion
-Ostracism is ignoring or excluding individuals
-Rejection is an explicit declaration that an individual/group is not wanted
-Social exclusion is being kept apart from others
-Cyberball paradigm involves exclusion from a ball-tossing game (in-person or online)
-Life alone paradigm involves telling ppl that they’ll likely spend life mostly alone
oThis significantly increases aggression
-Get acquainted paradigm involves playing a get to know you game with group, ask each person
individually who they would like to work with further, tell ppl nobody selected them
oThis significantly reduces self-esteem
- When excluded, you can change behaviour to fit in, or react aggressively
oMore often people are aggressive
- Williams (2007) two stage process of social exclusion
oReflexive – automatic experience of social pain (unaffected by context/individual diffs)
oControlled – cognitive appraisal, influenced by stable dispositions & features of situation
- Warburton et al. (2006) P’s were included or excluded, then noise blasts which they could/not turn off
oExcluded + given control = no more aggressive than inclusion condition
Alcohol
- Pharmacological effects (on the body) + psychological effects (believing you’re drunk)
oUse of balanced placebo design to separate out these effects
oAlcohol group, control group, placebo group, anti-placebo (believe consumed non-alcoholic)
oPharmacological effects = compare control with anti-placebo group (neither thinks they drank)
oPsychological effects = compare placebo with control group (neither had any drink)
oBushman and Cooper (1990) both pharm and psych effects are necessary
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