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Psychology 3720F/G Chapter Notes -Racing Video Game, Blood Pressure, Psych

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Psych 3720F – Final Exam
Lesson 11
Media Violence and Aggression
Prevalence and Use of Violent Media Contents
- To show that media violence is harmful, two things are required:
1. Evidence that violence & aggression are widely present in media
2. Exposure to such violent contents is substantial among both children and adults
- National TV Violence Study  57% programs samples (1995) had violent content
- NTVVS (2002)  children’s programs had more violence w/ more positive outcomes
- As much as 97% of video games contain violent content
- Smith et al. (2004) did contextual analysis of use of guns in TV and video games
oScenes involving use of gun were almost always lethal towards target
oVideo games presented all violence as justified
oVery few acts were done in retaliation, suggesting mainly unprovoked aggression
- 81% of boys had played games rated as unsuitable for their age group (36% girls)
Research Designs
- Cross-sectional studies: relate self-reports of violent media use to aggressive behaviour
oUse observation, peer nominations, or self-reports
oKrahé and Möller (2011) studied 7th & 8th graders, self-reports of TV/film/video game genres
Teachers provided ratings of aggressive/prosocial behaviour for each student
More violent media watched/used, greater aggression & less prosocial
- Experimental studies: assign participants randomly to conditions and observe short-term differences
oCarnagey and Anderson (2005) P’s played a racing game, where killing was good/bad/imposs
Blood pressure & pulse measured arousal, state hostility measured after 20 mins of play
Scrambled words that could produce aggressive or non-aggressive results measured
Duration and intensity of noise blasts delivered also measured
Both good and bad group saw significantly increased state hostility
Those in the good/reward group saw significantly higher aggression thoughts/behaviour
- Longitudinal studies: follow same group over time and measure changes in aggressive behaviour
oColumbia Television Violence Study (Huesmann & Miller, 1994) used 875 third graders
Each time measured exposure to TV violence and aggressive behaviour
Compared ten years later (18) and another twelve years later (30)  400 P’s
For boys, childhood violent TV exposure predicts aggressive behaviour
For girls, evidence is inconclusive
- Does viewing TV violence make viewers more aggressive (socialization hypothesis)
- Are more aggressive individuals more strongly attracted to violent TV (selection hypothesis)
oStudies have found support for both, suggesting they are mutually reinforcing
- Limitations of the research designs include:
oCross-sectional: only show correlation, no causal risk factors
oLongitudinal: cannot demonstrate cause-effect, only significant predictors of
Meta Analytical Evidence
- Anderson et al. (2010) found larger effect sizes for studies using “best practices”
- General effect sizes fall into the small to medium range
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