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Chapter 16


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Psychology 3721F/G
Taylor Kohut

CHAPTER 16: RACISM & PREJUDICE What is Racism?  Racism: prejudice, hostility, discrimination, segregation and other negative action toward an ethinic group  Prejudice: intolerant, unfair or irrational unfavourable attitudes towards another group of ppl; assumption that ones own ethnic group is superior  Institutional racism o Formal and explicit laws and regulations that discriminate against certain ethnic groups o Informal but powerful social norms limiting the opportunities and choices available to certain ethnic groups; eg dual school systems Children’s racial attitudes  Many of our attitudes and opinions toward groups of ppl are adopted  Doll technique: children are showed to dolls one representing a black child and the other a white child; all children preferred white child  Black pride movement; emphasis on positive cultural traditions and values; to improve black childrens self images  Black children integrated school were as problack in their doll choices as white children were prowhite Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes  Study: 75% of Princeton undergrads though negroes were superstitious and lazy  Higher levels of agreement when rates were asked what traits other attribute to blacks than when they are asked about their own perceptions  Stereotypes are necessary to simplify the world, the issue is when ppls behahaviour reflects their negative stereotypes Racial Stereotypes in Mass Media  3 major stages of dpictions of ethnic minorities in media (1)nonrecognition of existence (2) period of ridicule (3) some inclusion  cumulative effects of many repeated media presentations of stereotypic info may be very powerful in establishing and maintaining racial attitudes: medias enculturation function The Nature of Ethnic Prejudice  stereotypes in many cases may remain stable or may be malleable and reactive to social context; usually generalize attitude Intergroup Biases: ingroup favoiritism; when one feels that their ingroup is being threatened, that will lead to outgroup derogation White racial attitudes about blacks; even in given individuals there are conflicting beliefs about racism 4 aspects of racial attitudes (1) social distance: amount ppl desire to maintain from a given ethnic group -5 dimentions: exclusion, respect, friendship acceptance, marital acceptance, superordination -an intimacy of relationships increases prejudice increases; huge increases in social distance over past 60 years (2) principles of equal treatment -support for general principles of equal treatment, nondiscrimination, integration of races (school integration, residential integration, equal treatment in employment) -white attitudes on these topics have shown large parallel increases in favourability over past; attitudes even out over diff regions of country (3) implementation of principles of equality -dec support in combating segregation: concerned approval of govt action to see it that black ppl get fair trt in jobs; equal schooling -“no interest category” shows a bias -levels of approval are lower than 100%; public support for govt implementation of equal trt is lower than support for questions on principles of equal trt; diff approval levels in country and educational level; in area of govt implementation of programs to promote racial equality, some programs are favoured by only a minority of americans and size of supportive group has been slowly inc or even dec (4) beliefs about inequality -blacks are discriminated because of low motivation, poor change for education, discrimination, inborn ability -drop in whites who believed black didn’t have as good of chance as whites to get a job Theories of White racial attitudes  modern racism: affective aspects of racial attitudes , usually acquired in childhood and are harder to change, negative racial feelings influence new eras  symbolic racism: a blend of antiblack affect and belief in traditional American values related to protestant ethic; similar items used as a measuring modern racism, however the items have an abstract symbolic character that is unrelated to respondents personal lives but to their moral code and social ideals—studies have shown that symbolic racism better predicted voting against a black candidate then were personal threats stemming from crime in the community, moreover symbolic racism scores were related to opposition then self interest variables o sociotropic voting: community or national focus in voting  aversive racism: (1)most ppl exhibit some degree of negative feelings towards blacks (2)powerful norms and fairness and equality are widespread in modern society (3)even ppl who think they aren’t prejudiced hold unconscious negative feelings towards ethnic minorities (4)internal struggle creates an aversive tendency to avoid interaction with minority gro
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