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Chapter 17


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Psychology 3721F/G
Taylor Kohut

CHAPTER 17: GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES Sexism & racism & differences: women aren’t a minority, blacks were separated as a group however womens lives are intertwined with men; black owned ans sold whereas women were protected from strain of employment; sexism is like practice and beliefs while racism arose from historical, policitcal and social conditions ORIGINS OF GENDER ROLES-BIOLOGICAL OR CULTURAL?  Evolutionary Explanation: adaptive, result from natural selection; women are restricted in how many children they can bear, thus greater investment in each childs success  Social role theory: gender roles; diff socialization of boys and girls they are prepared to live life in roles; gender roles became normative patterns which emerged through historical influences  Traditional gender roles and stereotypes: personality, role behaviours, physical characteristics, cognitive abilities: women have more expressive traits, communal (selfless) whereas men are more instrumental (goal oriented), agency (self interested and motivated towards mastery); beliefs have remained more stable over time  Female role: dispense with any air of strength and ability, submissive, don’t excel, need his care and protection  Male role: strong, silent, tough, violent, self sufficient, stud (nonrelational sex), not sitty, powerful, successful  Influences on gender stereotypes on behaviour: self fulfilling prophecy: ppl behave in ways that confirm others expectations of them, however in some cases, info about gender may be outweighed by other info more related to decision SOURCES OF GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES  Parents, teachers, peers: boys get more physical contact, girls more nonphysical contact; parents make more demands on boys and reprimand them more; children as young as 2 years show a preference for gender oriented toys  Psychotherapists: double standard of mental health by male and female practitioners; healthy traits of a women were same as unhealthy traits of normal adult; clinicians may be encouraging women to adjust to norms that are opposed to inc maturity and individuality  History, sociology, marriage and family textbooks: attitudes toward gender roles revealed by writers in sociology and other social sciences are characterized by androcentrism (focus on men) stereotyping and a bipolar view of gender roles  Childrens literature: content analysis of elementary school readers revealed consistent pattern of stereotypic messages to the nations children; dads were fun promoting while moms were colourless and only cooked and cleaned; boys did fun things while girls stood by passively and watched  Everyday language:language deprecates women; languages use reflects gender stereotypes (ex women doctor or male nurse); language treats the male as normative; women less interested in jobs in generic masculine language  Mass media: advertising; studies have shown that shows or commercials showing non traditional gender role s
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