Chapter 9 communication of attitudes and opinions. Propaganda efforts were not as successful as was once originally thought: they failed to achieve many of the attitude and motivational changes that were intended, audiences are not as easy to persuade as was originally thought. To account for these findings 2 changes were made: attention shifted from mass communication to personal face to face persuasion, attention shifted from content of the commercials to other things such as source and audience. Independent variables: source, message, audience, medium, target behavior variables. Source variables: characteristics of the source of the message it s credibility, expertness or likeablity. Message variables: content and structure of the message, how it s organized, emotional appeals . Audience variables: characteristics of people receiving the message. Media variables: the printed word, radio, television and face-to-face interpersonal transmission. Target behavior variables goals of the communicator, which parallel the possible dependent variables.