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Chapter 9


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Psychology 3723F/G
James M Olson

Chapter 9 The Internal WorldImplicit Windows Into AttitudesAn individuals response on explicit measures may not provide an accurate depiction of their opinionOne perceived advantage of implicit measures was the belief theyre less likely to be influenced by social desirability concerns and other unwanted influencesHowever people might be capable of influencing their responses on implicit measuresEg an individuals response on implicit measures can differ as a function of whether the measure is completed in a public vs private settingIn an experiment researchers asked American college students to complete implicit measure of attitudes toward homosexuality in a private or public settingCompleting the task in a public setting led to more favourable attitudesThere are many variables that can have an unwanted influence on responses to IAT includingDominance of a particular category during judgementVarious nondecision processesDegree to which measure assesses attitudes toward target concepts vs exemplars of conceptsAssociations with an object not personally endorsedIAT is not immune to fakingResearch have used implicit measures to tap into the three witchesContentimplicit measures assessing extent to which an attitude is based on cognitive affective and behavioural infoStructureimplicit measures adapted to measure positive and negative evaluations separately consistent with bidimensional approachFunctionimplicit measures can be used to assess the motivates associated with particular groupsThe Effects of Body Movements on AttitudesActions involving a high degree of thinking and feeling influence attitudesAttitudes may also be influenced by much simpler and more mechanical actions egrun sit calmly smile frown etcMotor Actions and EmotionResearchers asked participants to look at different cartoon drawings while holding a pen in their mouth gripping it with their teeth or with their lipsGripping pen with teeth caused a forced smile and these participants were significantly more amused by the cartoonsMotor Actions and AttitudeStudy illustrating effects of motor action on attitudes asked participants to nod head up and down OR shake from side to side while listening to an editorial through headphonesWere told nodding would simulate effects of jogging on earphone quality and shaking would simulate effects of cycling on earphone quality however nodding is generally sign of agreement and shaking sign of disagreementFound that nodders agreed more with the content of the editorial messageBodily actions associated with a particular evaluative tendency can influence how we process infoAnother important body movement involves flexion of limbs vs extensionGrasping reflex has special significance for showing something vital about the way we thinkIn one experiment participants were seated at a desk and asked whether they liked or disliked 24 different Chinese ideographsIn flexion condition participants did this while gently lifting palms up against bottom of tableIn extension condition participants did this while gently pressing their palms down against the top of the tableParticipants then sorted ideographs from least likeable to most likeable
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