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Chapter 4

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Psychology 1000

Summary of chapter 4: evolution Genotype=> the specific genetic makeup of an individual that is present from birth and never changes Phenotype=>the observable characteristics that can be altered by the environment and other genes Genes=> sequences of DNA that code for proteins that are responsible for a character trait Heritability coefficient=> estimation of how the variation in a characteristic is due to genes -has to do with how much genes contribute to difference within group (NOT and individual) behavioural genetics=> study of how heredity and environmental factors affect psychological characteristics reaction range=> theory that the genetic code allows upper and lower limits to traits Gene math: -if high concordance Monozygotic= share 100% DNA (genetically identical twins) between twins reared Dizygotic= share 50% DNA (fraternal twins/ siblings) apart, it suggests trait is Concordance= both twins share same trait genetically reliable Genetic engineering: -enzymes cut out DNA and recombined with another organism -gene knockout= particular function of a gene is eliminated Key ideas: -genes can turn on or off -dominant trait expresses gene when heterozygous -people with sickle cell disease have a greater chance of surviving malaria (coincidence….no!) -Nature’s past success remain part of our genetic makeup -adopted children share -Idea= if we can turn off or on genes than we should theoretically be able to turn off cancer genes Natural selection:
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