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Chapter 10

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Psychology Chapter 10 Notes (Intelligence)  Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, think and reason effectively and deal adaptively with the environment o A host of abilities encompass intelligence Intelligence in the Historical Perspective  Sir Francis Galton’s research led him to determine that intelligence was inherited; that eminent people inherited ‘mental constitutions’ that made them more fit for thinking than poorer people o Galton also believe that intelligence was directed tied to an individual’s ability to their speed of their nervous system (unitary intelligence) o As well, he measured skull size, thinking that skull size was proportional to brain volume and therefore, intelligence. o Later, Galton’s theories fell into disfavour due to the fact that nervous system efficiency were proved to be unrelated to relevant mental ability, such as academic and occupational success.  A psychologist named Spearman decided that intelligence needed better statistics; he looked for patterns of correlation which gives individuals a ‘g’ factor. o All the tests must be correlated for this to work, however.  In the 20 century, Alfred Binet was commissioned by the French Ministry of Public Education to create a test. o Binet made 2 assumptions while creating that test:  That mental ability develops with age  The rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is constant over time o Binet personally believed that intelligence was a collection of higher-order abilities, but there was correlation of his belief; he believe that intelligence was multiplex o Using answers asked from teachers, Binet created a test where an examiner would ask a child to solve questions suitable for his/her age.  Results from the testing would indicate the child’s mental age.  The concept of mental age was adapted by William Stern, a German psychologist who created the IQ by using o While this was able to be used on children, the Stern’s quotient does not apply on adults  Lewis Terman, a professor at Stanford, was intrigued by Binet’s work. He revised the test and it became known as the Stanford-Binet. o The test included certain things that inidividuals of a certain age must be able to accomplish:  2-2 ½ year olds must be able to insert blocks into appropriate holes into foamboard  6 year olds must be able to define words such as envelope o During World War 1, a student of Terman’s adapted the test to the screening of Army individuals called Army Alpha. o A non-verbal version, called Army Beta, was created.  David Weschler developed a test in 1939 called the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), followed by a test for children called the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) in 1955. o The WAIS-III and WISC-IV are the most popular tests in North America  The WAIS has 10 subscales with both verbal and performance based measures.  It uses a deviation based IQ scale  Mean IQ is 100, standard deviation is +/- 15  Another psychologist named Thurstone believed that intelligence was based off of primary mental abilities (he belived 7 accoutned for intelligence) o His tests require no g factor and showed better statistics than those of Spearman’s. However, there are no correlation at all between the tests.  There are other models of intelligence, such as Cattel’s (based off of fluid and crystalized intelligence), Gardner’s (multiple intelligences) and Sternberg’s (triarchic theory) The Measure of Intelligence  One question that developers still ask is that should you test for the aptitude for learning or test what a person already knows? o An achievement test is designed to test how much an individual already knows o An aptitude test is designed to test how much an individual is capable of learning  A psychological test is a method for measuring individual differences related to some psychological concept or construct based on a sample of relevant behaviour in a scientifically designed and controlled environment. o Reliability refers to the consistency of measurement  A test-retest reliability is whether two test scores, taken at separate times from each other, are about the same  Internal consistency is the measure of consistency concerning the measurement of the test itself.  Interjudge reliability refers to the
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