Psychology Chapter 11 Notes (Motivation and Emotion)
Motivation is defined as a process that influences the direction, persistence and vigour of goal-
Perspectives on Motivation
An instinct is an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when
exposed to a certain stimuli.
Homeostasis is the state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain
o An example is positive and negative feedback
o The autonomic nervous system is important in maintaining homeostasis
The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system
The ANS is then divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic
o Both are antagonistic
o The PNS conserves and the SNS activates the body
It generates arousal, which is then led to the activation of the autonomic
Hull theorized that physiological disruptions to homeostasis produces drives, states of tension
that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce the tension.
Incentives are environmental stimuli that pull an individual towards a goal
o Drives are internal factors that push individuals
Another theory on motivation is the expectancy x value theory, where goal-driven behaviour is
acted on by two factors:
o The strength of a person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a certain
o The value the individual places on the goal
o Motivation=expectancy x incentive value
There are two types of motivation, extrinsic and intrinsic.
o Extrinsic is the motivation in where you obtain a reward or avoid punishment
o Intrinsic is where you perform an activity for its own sake.
Maslow derived a ‘hierarchy of needs’ which contain deficiency needs at the bottom and growth
needs at the top
Self Actualization is at the top; representing the need to fulfill an individual’s
o Deficiency needs are needs that are concerned with an individual’s physical and social
o Growth needs are needs that are uniquely human and motivate individuals to develop
Self-determination theory focuses on an individual’s fundamental psychological needs;
competence, autonomy, and relatedness o Competence is the human need to master new challenges and perfect skills
o Autonomy is the satisfied feeling when people experience their actions as result of free
choice without outside interference
o Relatedness is the desire to form meaningful bonds with one another.
Hunger and Weight Regulation
Metabolism is the body’s rate of caloric utilization
o 2/3 goes towards basal metabolism; the resting, continuous metabolic work of body
Hunger is not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs.
Homeostatic mechanisms prevent you from running low on energy in the first
There is a set point at which body weight, or fat mass, is regulated around;
homeostatic mechanisms will return us close to our original weight if we eat too
much or little.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is a major source of fuel.
As we eat, several signals from out body combine and cause individuals to end their meals.
o They are called ‘satisfy signals’s
CCK (cholecystokinin) is a chemical that is released into your bloodstream when food arrives
into your stomach and it decreases eating by attaching to several receptors in your brain.
Leptin is a hormone that decreases appetite.
Many pathways that influence food intake seem to be involves with the periventricular nucleus,
a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites that stimulate/reduce appetite.
Most people go through a four stage sexual response cycle.
o Excitement phase is where arousal builds rapidly.
Blood flow increases to arteries in and around genital organs, nipples and
This is called vasocongestion
Penis and clitoris become erect, vaginal lubrication begins and muscle tension
increases throughout the body
o Plateau phase is where the body’s functions build until there is enough muscle tension
for orgasm; mainly respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion and muscle tension
o Orgasm phase is different for male and females
In males, contractions in internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the
urethra project semen out of the penis
A resolution phase is followed right after orgasm where physiological
arousal decreases rapidly
After, a refractory period is where males are unable of achieving
another orgasm In females, rhythmic contractions occur in the vagina, surrounding muscle and
Females are able to experience more than one orgasm, but most people
only experience one.
Sexual orientation refers to one’s emotional and erotic preference for partner of a particular
Arousal is the physiological and psychological states of being reactive to stimuli
o Sometimes, arousal may be produced by one source and misappropriated to another
source due to another arousing event; called excitation transfer
Zillan in 1994 showed that residual arousal from one event can be transferred to
Meston and Forhlich showed that ratings of opposite sex photos can
change from before to after a roller coaster ride
o Arousal may be produced by one source and then mistakenly identified as due to
another source, such as in Dutton and Aon’s 1974 bridge study.
o Activation of the SNS stimulates the adrenal medulla and adrenaline is released which
increases HR and RR and increases glycolysis in the body
It leads to heightened states of arousal
o Pupil dilation is a sign of arousal; most people show high ratings for people with dilated
In emergency situations that elicit fear, people tend to avoid intense situations and prefer
The need for achievement is the desire to accomplish tasks and attain standards of excellence
Approach-approach conflict involves opposition between two attractive alternatives
Avoidance-avoidance conflict involves two undesirable conflicts
Approach-avoidance conflict is being attracted and repelled by the same goal
Delay discounting is the decrease in value of a future incentive as a function of its distance in
The Nature and Functions of Emotion
Emotions are positive or negative feelings consisting of a pattern of cognitive, physiological and
behavioural reactions to events that have relevance to important goals or motives
o Emotions are response to external or internal stimuli
o Emotional responses result from out interpretation or cognitive appraisal of these
o Our bodies respond physiologically to our appraisal o Emotions include behaviour tendencies
Some are expressive behaviours
Others are instrumental behaviours
o Emotions are a dynamic ongoing process; change in any of the four elements can be due
to situational changes and responses may be influenced one another.
o Emotions begin on the left side of the brain
The left frontal lobe is more involved in positive emotions, whereas the right in
more negative ones
There is more activity in the left frontal lobe when watching happy films,
whereas the right has more when engaged in sad or disgusting films
o Emotions are visible in 10 months old infants
o Studies indicate that the right hemisphere may be connected to negative emotions
whereas the left is connected to positive emotions
Emotions have important adaptive functions.
o Some are part of an emergency system that increases the chance of survival by
energizing, directing and sustaining fighting or fleeing when confronted by threat or
o Some help us form lasting social relationships and work to broaden our thinking and
Emotions are a form of social communication
o They influence the behaviour of others towards us by providing observable information
about internal states and intentions
Emotions are responses to situations, people, objects or events
o Internal stimuli may trigger emotional responses; no all emotional responses stem from
Cognition is used in every aspect of emotion; they evoke emotional responses, are part of
subjective experiences of the emotion and influence how individuals express emotions and how
they act upon them
Emotions are responses to perceptions of eliciting stimuli
o They are espe