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Chapter 11

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Psychology 1000

Psychology Chapter 11 Notes (Motivation and Emotion)  Motivation is defined as a process that influences the direction, persistence and vigour of goal- driven behaviour. Perspectives on Motivation  An instinct is an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a certain stimuli.  Homeostasis is the state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain o An example is positive and negative feedback o The autonomic nervous system is important in maintaining homeostasis  The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system  The ANS is then divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system o Both are antagonistic o The PNS conserves and the SNS activates the body  It generates arousal, which is then led to the activation of the autonomic nervous system  Hull theorized that physiological disruptions to homeostasis produces drives, states of tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce the tension.  Incentives are environmental stimuli that pull an individual towards a goal o Drives are internal factors that push individuals  Another theory on motivation is the expectancy x value theory, where goal-driven behaviour is acted on by two factors: o The strength of a person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a certain goal o The value the individual places on the goal o Motivation=expectancy x incentive value  There are two types of motivation, extrinsic and intrinsic. o Extrinsic is the motivation in where you obtain a reward or avoid punishment o Intrinsic is where you perform an activity for its own sake.  Maslow derived a ‘hierarchy of needs’ which contain deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top  Self Actualization is at the top; representing the need to fulfill an individual’s attention o Deficiency needs are needs that are concerned with an individual’s physical and social survival o Growth needs are needs that are uniquely human and motivate individuals to develop their potential  Self-determination theory focuses on an individual’s fundamental psychological needs; competence, autonomy, and relatedness o Competence is the human need to master new challenges and perfect skills o Autonomy is the satisfied feeling when people experience their actions as result of free choice without outside interference o Relatedness is the desire to form meaningful bonds with one another. Hunger and Weight Regulation  Metabolism is the body’s rate of caloric utilization o 2/3 goes towards basal metabolism; the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells.  Hunger is not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs.  Homeostatic mechanisms prevent you from running low on energy in the first place.  There is a set point at which body weight, or fat mass, is regulated around; homeostatic mechanisms will return us close to our original weight if we eat too much or little.  Glucose is a simple sugar that is a major source of fuel.  As we eat, several signals from out body combine and cause individuals to end their meals. o They are called ‘satisfy signals’s  CCK (cholecystokinin) is a chemical that is released into your bloodstream when food arrives into your stomach and it decreases eating by attaching to several receptors in your brain.  Leptin is a hormone that decreases appetite.  Many pathways that influence food intake seem to be involves with the periventricular nucleus, a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites that stimulate/reduce appetite. Sexual Motivation  Most people go through a four stage sexual response cycle. o Excitement phase is where arousal builds rapidly.  Blood flow increases to arteries in and around genital organs, nipples and women’s breasts  This is called vasocongestion  Penis and clitoris become erect, vaginal lubrication begins and muscle tension increases throughout the body o Plateau phase is where the body’s functions build until there is enough muscle tension for orgasm; mainly respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion and muscle tension o Orgasm phase is different for male and females  In males, contractions in internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the urethra project semen out of the penis  A resolution phase is followed right after orgasm where physiological arousal decreases rapidly  After, a refractory period is where males are unable of achieving another orgasm  In females, rhythmic contractions occur in the vagina, surrounding muscle and uterus.  Females are able to experience more than one orgasm, but most people only experience one.  Sexual orientation refers to one’s emotional and erotic preference for partner of a particular sex.  Arousal is the physiological and psychological states of being reactive to stimuli o Sometimes, arousal may be produced by one source and misappropriated to another source due to another arousing event; called excitation transfer  Zillan in 1994 showed that residual arousal from one event can be transferred to another situation  Meston and Forhlich showed that ratings of opposite sex photos can change from before to after a roller coaster ride o Arousal may be produced by one source and then mistakenly identified as due to another source, such as in Dutton and Aon’s 1974 bridge study. o Activation of the SNS stimulates the adrenal medulla and adrenaline is released which increases HR and RR and increases glycolysis in the body  It leads to heightened states of arousal o Pupil dilation is a sign of arousal; most people show high ratings for people with dilated pupils  In emergency situations that elicit fear, people tend to avoid intense situations and prefer familiar things. Achievement Motivation  The need for achievement is the desire to accomplish tasks and attain standards of excellence Motivational Conflict  Approach-approach conflict involves opposition between two attractive alternatives  Avoidance-avoidance conflict involves two undesirable conflicts  Approach-avoidance conflict is being attracted and repelled by the same goal  Delay discounting is the decrease in value of a future incentive as a function of its distance in time. The Nature and Functions of Emotion  Emotions are positive or negative feelings consisting of a pattern of cognitive, physiological and behavioural reactions to events that have relevance to important goals or motives o Emotions are response to external or internal stimuli o Emotional responses result from out interpretation or cognitive appraisal of these stimuli o Our bodies respond physiologically to our appraisal o Emotions include behaviour tendencies  Some are expressive behaviours  Others are instrumental behaviours o Emotions are a dynamic ongoing process; change in any of the four elements can be due to situational changes and responses may be influenced one another. o Emotions begin on the left side of the brain  The left frontal lobe is more involved in positive emotions, whereas the right in more negative ones  There is more activity in the left frontal lobe when watching happy films, whereas the right has more when engaged in sad or disgusting films o Emotions are visible in 10 months old infants o Studies indicate that the right hemisphere may be connected to negative emotions whereas the left is connected to positive emotions  Emotions have important adaptive functions. o Some are part of an emergency system that increases the chance of survival by energizing, directing and sustaining fighting or fleeing when confronted by threat or danger o Some help us form lasting social relationships and work to broaden our thinking and behaviours  Emotions are a form of social communication o They influence the behaviour of others towards us by providing observable information about internal states and intentions  Emotions are responses to situations, people, objects or events o Internal stimuli may trigger emotional responses; no all emotional responses stem from external stimuli  Cognition is used in every aspect of emotion; they evoke emotional responses, are part of subjective experiences of the emotion and influence how individuals express emotions and how they act upon them  Emotions are responses to perceptions of eliciting stimuli o They are espe
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