Textbook Notes (368,150)
Canada (161,680)
Psychology (4,889)
Psychology 1000 (1,620)
Dr.Mike (707)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Notes.docx

8 Pages
43 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology Chapter 12 Notes (Development over the Lifespan) Developmental Psychology: Issue and Methods  Developmental psychology examines changes in our biological, physical, psychological and behavioural processes as we age. There are four issues that guide developmental research: o Nature/nurture; maturation versus learning o Critical and sensitive periods  A critical period is defined as an age range where certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally or along a certain path  A sensitive period is an optimal age range for certain experiences  Even if experiences are shown at difference times, normal development may be possible o Continuity versus discontinuity o Stability versus change  Developmental psychologists plot developmental function on graphs  There are special types of designs that psychologists use o A cross-sectional design is a research design that compares, simultaneously, people of different ages at a particular point in time o Longitudinal design is research that is repeated with the same individuals as they age o Sequential design combines both cross-sectional and longitudinal design Prenatal Development  Prenatal development consists of 3 stages: o Germinal stage encompasses the first two weeks of development, starting with the zygote o Embryonic stage is from the second week until the eighth week of conception and the cell is now called an embryo  The placenta and umbilical cord develop at this stage again.  By week 8, the heart of the embryo is now beating o The fetal stage begins when, starting the 9 week, the embryo becomes a fetus. The fetal stage lasts until birth  By 28 weeks, the fetus attains the age of viability, which means that it is likely to survive outside the womb in the case of premature birth  Genetics take a play into determining gender, as the Y chromosome has a gene called the TDF; testis determining factor o It is approximately 6-8 weeks after conception when the TDF gene initiates development of testes and male sex hormones called androgens continue a male pattern of development o If androgen is not present, a female pattern of development occurs  Teratogens are environmental agents that cause abnormal prenatal development. o Many substances can cause birth defects, along with many drugs  Some include alcohol which causes fetal alcohol syndrome, mercury, lead, radiation and nicotine. Infancy and Childhood  Fantz used a procedure called the preferential looking procedure to study infants’ visual preferences  Infants have poor visual acuity and readily turn toward off-centered auditory and tactile targets o Infant’s iris’ are grey or blue at birth and the pigment comes later in life o The pupil is unable to fully dilate and the retina is not fully formed yet o They are able to turn their head to keep objects in view, but their visual accommodation is only to about 18-38cm  Taste and smells of infants are very similar to adults; they prefer sweet liquids to salty liquids o This suggests taste and smell are hardwired  Infants are able to respond to a wide variety of sounds o They prefer complex sound; they are especially sensitive to sounds in the range of the human voice o Within the first couple days, they are able to turn their heads towards the sound’s location and discriminate between sounds  Infants seem to learn rapidly; they can tell the difference in faces between a strangers and their mother’s. o A new visual image can be taught to infants by using a system called the visual habituation procedure, where an image is repeatedly shown to an infant until the looking time declines. o Auditory habituation procedures involve studying infant memory by playing a off- centered sound.  Studies are shown that newborns rapidly learn to associate sounds with objects  Newborns can learn through classic and operant conditioning and imitation. o They learnt that infants became upset when, during extinction, their expectations were violated and how infants learnt to suck milk in bursts when they heard their mother’s voice over a recorder  Newborns will imitate some adult facial expressions.  Newborn’s visual acuity improves rapidly; their visual field will expand to almost adult size by 6 months whereas grating acuity improves from 20/800 to 20/100 by 6 months and then it is improved to adult levels by age 4. o By 3-4 months, infants have some depth perception; they can roughly judge object distance  They cannot see with one eye covered, however o At 4-5 months, infants are able to reach for nearby toys o By 6-7 months, they are able to accurately grasp o During 9-10 months, they avoid the deep end of a visual cliff  Maturation is the biological process that governs the growth of individuals. o Two processes govern biological maturation; the cephalocaudal principle and the proximodistal principle.  The cephalocaudal principle is the principle stating that growth develops in a head-to-foot direction  The proximodistal principle sates that development starts from the innermost parts of the body and works outwards.  Motor development tends to follow a regular, stagelike pattern of development o Reflexes are inborn behaviours that are exhibited by newborns when presented with specific stimuli. o Some skills follow a U-shape; some skills are lost then recovered. o At birth, infants exhibit the Babinski sign; when the bottom of the foot is touched, the toes fan outwards  Most reflexes disappear as the child ages  There are milestones that children should reach when they hit the appropriate age: o From months 1-5, children should be able to sit with support o From months 5-9, children should be able to sit without support o From months 6-12, children should be able to stand with help, such as furniture o At months 9-16, they should be able to stand alone o From months 7-17, they should be able to walk alone  While development is affected by genetic programs, they are also affected by experience.  Jean Piaget is a Swiss Cognitive Development psychologist that spent 50 years exploring the cognitive development of children. o Piaget first started out working with Binet. o Piaget proposed that children’s thinking changes qualitatively with age. o According to Piaget, cognitive development occurs when individuals acquire new schemas, and two processes are involved:  Assimilation is the process where new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas  Accommodation is the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change o Piaget charted 4 majors stages of cognitive growth:  Sensorimotor stage begins from birth to age 2:  Around 8 months of age, infants understand object permanence; that objects exist even when it can be no longer seen.  Infants acquire language after age 1  Nothing exists apart from a child’s own perceptions and motor reactions  There is no concept of I; no self concept  Co-ordination of activities is no present until 5 months; it takes an infant about 7 months on average to use both hands  There is a vital important of sensory feedback  Infants can pseudoimitate, but only if actions are produced by someone else  By 18-24 months, the infant has efficient imitation and has representational thought; that the external exists o Infants have object permanence; the understanding that an object exists even if it is no longer seen  However, Kellmand and Spelke has shown that infants do have object permanence, but they are just adept at finding them once hidden  Preoperational stage is from age 2 to about age 7  The preoperational child does not understand the law of conservation; that while the outward appearance of the object has changed, the mass, volume or quantity has not. o Preoperational kids tend to attend to only one aspect of a stimulus  Their thinking also reflect egocentrism, where they cannot perceive another’s perception o They are unable to take the place of another; the 3 mountain problem show this as well as the false belief test  The 3 mountain scenario is a scenario where children were unable to establish the viewpoint of another who was standing opposite to them  The false belief scenario again shows egocentrism, but using a teddy bear, a box and a piece of candy  However, young children may be tempted by the candy, and broccoli was replaced. In that case, egocentrism was not shown at all during the study  The concrete operational stage begins from age 7 to 12  Children at this age should be able to perform basic mental problems that involve tangible objects; they have problems with
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit