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Chapter 14

Psychology Chapter 14 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
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Dr.Mike

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Psychology Chapter 14 Notes (Personality) What is Personality?  Personality is the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling and acting that characterize a person’s responses to life situations The Psychodynamic Perspective  Psychic energy is generated by instinctive drives, this energy powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect release  Pleasure principle is the drive for instant need gratification that is characteristic of the id.  The id is the primitive and unconscious part of the personality that contains the instincts  The ego is the ‘executive’ of the personality that is partly conscious and that meditates among the impulses of the id, the prohibitions of the superego and the dictates of reality o The ego operates according to the reality principle, which is the ego’s tendency to take reality into account and to act in a rational fashion in satisfying its needs  The superego is the moral arm of the personality that internalizes the standards and values of society and serves as the person’s conscience  Defense mechanisms are unconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression of anxiety-arousing impulses or allows them to appear in disguised forms o The ego will resort to defense mechanisms that deny or distort reality  Repression is the basic defense mechanism that actively keeps anxiety-arousing material in the unconscious o The ego will use some energy to prevent repressed thoughts and wishes from slipping into the conscious  Sublimation is the channeling of unacceptable impulses into socially accepted behaviours, as when aggressive drives are expressed in violent sports  Freud proposed that children pass through stages that are dependent on the pleasure sensitive areas of the body called erogenous zones.  Archetypes are innate concepts and memories  Object relations are the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as result of early experience with caregivers The Humanistic Perspective  Self-actualization is the total realization of one’s human potential  Self is an organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself  Self-consistency an absence of conflict among self-perceptions  Congruence is consistency between self perceptions and experiences  The need for positive regard is the acceptance, sympathy and love from others  Unconditional positive regard is
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