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Chapter 17

Psychology Chapter 17 Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Psychology Chapter 17 Notes (Treatment of Psychological Disorders) Psychodynamic Therapies  Psychoanalysis helps clients achieve insight, the conscious awareness of the psychodynamics that underlie their problems o ‘Classic’ psychoanalysis is based off of Freudian concepts, with the goal of uncovering hidden conflicts and unconscious impulses relying on insight therapy o Dream analysis removes ego from the equation  Free association refers to that in psychoanalysis, the procedure of verbalizing all thoughts that enter consciousness without censorship  Transference is a psychodynamic phenomenon in which a client responds irrationally to the analyst as if the latter were an important person from the client’s past who plays an important role in the client’s dynamics; the therapist becomes the object of the patient’s emotional attitudes o There are two types: positive and negative transference  Positive transference refers to positive feelings being transferred, whereas negative transference refers to negative feelings being transferred  Interpretation refers to in psychoanalysis, a statement made by the analyst that is intended to promote insight in the client o It provides a context or meaning to a patient’s thoughts  Resistance occurs when the patient avoids the topic, becomes angry at the interpretation, starts missing appointments and/or fails to pay  Through interpretation, resistance and transference, insight eventually arises  There are many types of psychoanalysis o Neo-Freudian o Ego analysis  Does it work? o More effective for some disorders and ages; it works better for anxiety than schizophrenia and younger people than older. Humanistic Psychotherapies  Client-centered therapy focuses on several key points; mainly that people are generally good and that they move towards their ‘ideal’ self, but problems arise when individuals are prevented from realizing full potential; Rogerian therapy helps client rediscover self o The therapists really acts as an understanding, sympathetic sounding board o Client suggest cures and decides when therapy is sucessful  Unconditional positive regard is the belief that the client is worthy and capable  Empathy is the recognition and acceptance of client’s emotions Cognitive Therapy  Cognitive therapy is concerned with the pattern of thoughts of the patient; focused on the present rather than the past; very directive. o Example: People make unrealistic demands on themselves and others; it is necessary for an adult to be loved and approved by almost everyone for virtually everything  The task is to help patients see the irrationality in their belief system; the therapist will continue to ask questions to get at the belief  Rational-emotive therapy assumes that abnormal behaviour stems from faulty and irrational thinking; the therapist attempts to replace it with rational thoughts and then the behavioural problems will disappear  There is close affinity with behaviour therapy  A fear-evoking thought is regarded as a form of behaviour, and the response os daying the illogical sentence to oneself  Self-instructional training Common themes across Therapy  Psychodynamic deals with understanding  Behavioural focuses on doing  Cognitive Behavioural deals with thinking  Emotional defusing is reducing and eliminating fear  During therapy, patient learn interpersonal learning, where patients learn how to reach with others by playing it out with the therapist  Patient develop insight in therapy, where the patients achieve a greater self-knowledge  Therapy is a step by step process  Therapy is socially acceptable; it is the preferred treatment for emotional problems Behaviour Therapies  Exposure  Response prevention  Flooding  Implosion therapy  Systematic desensitization  Counterconditioning  Stimulus hierarchy  In vivo desensitization  Aversion therapy  Behaviour modification  Token economy  Social skills training Third Wave Cognitive Behavioural Therapies  Mindfulness  Acceptance and commitment therapy  Dialectical behavioural therapy Cultural and Gender Issues in Psychotherapy  Cultural competence Evaluating Psychotherapies  Specificity question  Spontaneous remission  Randomized clinical trials  Placebo control group  Meta-analysis  Effect size statistic  Dodo bird effect  Clinical significance  Openness  Self-relatedness  Dose-response effect  Common factors Biological Approaches to Treatment  Drug therapies o Useful psychoactive drugs were only introduce about 50 years ago o Antianxiety drugs  Tranquilizers have a calming effect, lowers excitability and are heavily prescribed.
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