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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Key Terms.docx

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 8 Key Terms Alzheimer’s disease (AD): the leading cause of dementia in the elderly, accounting for about 60 percent of senile dementia Anterograde amnesia: memory loss for events that occur after the initial onset of amnesia Associative network: the view that long-term memory is organized as a massive network of associated ideas and concepts Chunking: combining individual items into larger units of meaning Context-dependent memory: the phenomenon that it is typically easier to remember something in the same environment in which it was originally learned or experienced Decay theory: the theory that with time and disuse the physical memory trace in the nervous system fades away Declarative memory: our memory for factual knowledge, which is composed of two sub- categories: knowledge pertaining to personal experience (episodic memory) and knowledge of general facts and language (semantic memory) Dementia: the gradual loss of cognitive abilities that accompanies brain deterioration and interferes with normal functioning Dual coding theory: the theory that, if we encode information by using both verbal and imagery codes, the chances improve that at least one of the two codes will be available later to support recall Elaborative rehearsal: focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know Encoding: getting information into the memory system by translating it into a neural code that the brain processes and stores Encoding specificity principle: observation that memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those that were present during encoding Episodic memory: our store of factual knowledge concerning personal experience – when, where and what happened in the episodes of our lives Explicit memory: conscious or intentional memory retrieval Flashbulb memories: recollections that seem so vivid and clear that we can picture them as if they were a “snapshot” of a moment in time Icon: a trace memory Implicit memory: the ability of memory to influence our behaviour without conscious awareness Infantile amnesia: an inability to remember personal experiences from the first few years of our lives Levels of processing: the concept that the more deeply we process information, the better it will be remembered Long-term memory: our vast library of durable stored memories Long-term potentiation: an enduring increase in synaptic strength that occurs after a neural circuit is rapidly stimulated Maintenance rehearsal: the simple mental repetition of information Memory: the processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information Memory code: visual, phonological, semantic, or motor encoding that stores information so it can be retained in short-term and long-term mem
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