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Chapter 9

10. January 8 -Chapter 9 -Motivation and Emotions.docx

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Psychology 1000
Lynn Jackson

Chapter 9 –Motivation and Emotion January 8, 2013 HOW DOES MOTIVATION ACTIVATE, DIRECT, AND SUSTAIN BEHAVIOUR?  Motivation –factors that energize, direct or sustain behaviour  Four Qualities of Motivational States: o Energizing –activate/arouse behaviours o Directive –guide behaviours to specific goals/needs o Persistent –until goals are achieved o Strength –dependent on internal and external factors Multiple Factors Motivate Behaviour  Need –state of biological or social deficiency  Need Hierarchy –Maslow’s arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs must be met before people can satisfy higher needs o Maslow is an example of humanist psychology –viewing people as striving toward personal fulfillment o Lacks empirical support  Self-Actualization –a state that is achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspirations have been attained Drives and Incentives  Arousal –psychological activation, such as increased brain activity, autonomic responses, sweating or muscle tension; created by needs  Drive –psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs  Homeostasis –the tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium; term coined by Walter B. Cannon  If a behaviour consistently reduces a drive, it becomes a habit  Drive states push to reduce arousal, but we are also pulled toward certain things in our environments  Incentives –external objects/goals rather than internal drives that motivate behaviour Arousal and Performance  Yerkes-Dodson Law –dictates that performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point and then decreases with arousal o Predicts that students perform best on exams when feeling moderate anxiety –too little anxiety can make them inattentive/unmotivated, too much can interfere with thinking ability Pleasure  Pleasure Principle –coined by Freud, proposed that drives are satisfied according to this which drives people to seek pleasure and avoid pain  Hedonism –humans desire for pleasantness Some Behaviours are Motivated for Their Own Sake  Extrinsic Motivation –motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is directed  Intrinsic Motivation –motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose  Creativity –the tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in solving problems, etc. Self-Determination Theory and Self-Perception Theory  Self-determination theory –people are motivated to satisfy needs for competence, relatedness to others, an autonomy, which is a sense of personal control o Argues that extrinsic rewards may reduce intrinsic values because such rewards undermine people’s feeling that they are choosing to do something for themselves  Self-perception theory –states that people seldom are aware of their specific motives and instead draw on inferences about their motivations according to what seems to make the most sense People Set Goals to Achieve  Goal –desired outcome usually associated with some specific object or some future behavioural intention  Self-Regulation of Behaviour—the process by which people alter or change their behaviour to attain personal goals Self-Efficacy and Achievement Motivation  Self-Efficacy –the expectancy that your efforts will lead to success; this belief helps mobilize your energies  Achievement Motive –desire to do well relative to the standards of excellence Delayed Gratification  The process of transcending immediate temptations to achieve long-term goals o Proposed by Metcalfe and Mischel based on how the brain processes the information o Hot Cognitions –focus on the rewarding, pleasurable aspects of objects o Cold Cognitions –focus on conceptual or symbolic meanings People Have a Need to Belong  Need to Belong Theory –the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes; theory by Roy Baumeister and Mark Leary  Social Comparison Theory –we are motivated to have accurate info about ourselves and others; we compare ourselves with those around us to test/validate ourselves and we compare ourselves with people relatively similar to us WHAT DETERMINES HOW WE EAT?  Sensory-Specific Satiety –phenomenon in which animals will stop eating relatively quickly if they have one type of food, but will eat more if presented with different type of food  Neophobia –fear of novel things Multiple Neural Processes Control Eating  The hypothalamus is the brain structure that most influences eating o Integrates inhibitory and excitatory feeding messages ad organizes behaviours involved in eating  Hyperphagia –condition caused by damaging the middle (ventromedial) region of the hypothalamus (VMH) causing rats to eat great quantities of food  Aphagia –damage to the outer or lateral area of the hypothalamus (LH), in which diminished eating behaviour leads to weight loss and eventual death unless the animal is force fed  Prefrontal region appears to process info about the potential reward value of food  Craving is triggered by seeing good-tasting food is associated with activity in the limbic system (involved in reward)  Gourmand Syndrome –damage to the limbic system or right frontal lobes, resulting in obsession with fine food and food preparation Internal Sensations  Glucostatic Theory –proposes the blood stream is monitored for its glucose levels  Lipostatic Theory –proposes a set point for body fat in which deviations from the set point initiate compensatory behaviours to return to homeostasis  Leptin –hormone involved in fat regulation; released from gat cells as more fat is stored
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