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Chapter 1

Psychology chapter 1.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Psychology chapter 1 Psychology- is the scientific study of behavior (refers to actions and responses that we observe) and mind (internal states of processes that can not be seen) Clinical psychology- study and treatment of mental disorders but psychologist have no connection with therapy and conduct research in other subfields Cognitive psychology- study of mental process ex memory, problem solving, attention and consciousness Biopsychology- how biological factors affect our actions and thoughts? Development psychology- examine human physical, psychological and social development over their life span Experimental psychology- focuses on processes of learning, sensory systems, perception and motivational states Industrial-organizational psychology- examining people behaviors in the work place factors include work motivation, job satisfaction and performance Personality psychology- study of human personality Social psychology- examining peoples thoughts, feelings and behavior to the social world Psychology- Scientific study of behavior and processes Biology Study of life process and biological studies Anthropology Cultural origins, evolutions and variations Economics Production distribution and consumption of goods and services Sociology Human social relationships and systems Engineering Scientific principles to designing machines and structures Computer science Information processing and manipulations of data Medicine Heath and the causes and treatment of disease Scientific Approach Science- is an approach is gathering information and evaluation observed evidence and beliefs Empirical evidence is evidence gathered through experience and observation Systematic- experiment following system of rules and conditions Every day observation is casual Pitfalls of understanding behavior  Mental shortcuts making quick judgment  Fail to consider alternative behavior  Confirmation bias ignoring information that is inconsistent with our belief Using science to minimize pitfalls  Use video recorders, questionnaires and brain-imaging devices  Use stats to analyze data  Change one factor the rest controlled  Challenge other’s findings  Science is a self-correcting process Critical thinking  What is the claim  Who is making the claim is the source trustworthy  What is the evidence and how good is it  Are other explanations possible can I evaluate them  What is the most appropriate conclusion Psychology goals  Describe how people and animals behave  To explain and understand the behaviors  To predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions  To influence or control behavior through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare  Linked if we understand the causes then we can predict when the behavior will occur, if we control the causes then we can control the behavior, Basic research- quest for knowledge for its own sake finding out how people behave which takes place in the real world or lab Applied research- designed to solve specific problems by using basic research Levels of analysis- analyzing behavioral phenomena and its factors in terms of biological, psychological and environmental Mind-body interactions- relationships of mental processes of the brain and the functioning of other body system Biological capacities affect how we behave and experience the world our experiences influence our biological capacities Perspectives- different ways of viewing people Intellectual Roots Mind-body dualism- the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body Rene Descartes- says the mind and body interact through the brain’s tiny pineal gland. Maintained that the mind was a spiritual nonmaterial entity Dualism- no amount of research on the physical body can unravel the mysteries of the nonphysical mind Monism- mind and body are one Thomas Hobbes- mental events correspond to physical events in the brain British empiricism- established by john Locke all contents of the mind are gained through our experiences. Observation is more valid than reason Psychophysics-
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