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Chapter 1

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 1 Psychology: the study of behaviour and the mind  Behaviour: actions/responses that are observed  Mind: internal states and processes Clinical Psychology: study and treatment of mental disorders  Not related to therapy but most conduct research/experiments Cognitive psychology: study of mental processes  Attention, memory, decision making, and problem solving  Psycholinguistics: psychology of language Biopsychology: biological underpinnings of behaviour [evolution linked to advanced thinking and behavioural tendencies] Developmental psychology: human physical, psychological, social development across lifespan Experimental psychlogy: basic learning processes [vision, hearing, perception] Industrial organizational psychology: teamwork and behaviour in the workplace Personality psychology: study of human personality Social psychology: examines people’s thoughts towards the social world; relationships  Subfields overlap Science: process involving gathering and evaluating empirical evidence to answer questions about the world Empirical evidence: evidence gained through experience and observation Misconceptions - fault thinking Mental shortcuts: judgement based on a widely known general view of a subject  fail to consider alternative influences on behaviour Confirmation bias: when we develop beliefs, selectively attentive to information that is consistent with one’s beliefs or ignoring information that is inconsistent with beliefs  Behaviour influenced by many factors; one may assume one factor is the cause but may be not; true one may be the one factor less obvious Science is a self correcting process************** Scienctific progress: evolution of knowledge Thinking critically about behaviour Critical thinking: taking in active role in understanding the world  Evaluating the validity of something presented to you as a fact Uncritical thinking- pseudoscience: astrology, rumpology ; this science lacks scientific evidence Psychology’s Goals: 1. Describe people and animal behaviour 2. Explan and understand these behaviours 3. Predict behaviour under certain conditions 4. Influence/control behaviour through knowledge and control its causes to enhance human welfare Level of Analysis 1. Biological [brain process/genetic influence] 2. Psychological [thoughts/feelings] 3. Environmental [physical/social exposure] – stimuli Mind-body interaction: relationship between mental processes in the brain and functioning of other body systems  Related to biological and psychological level Psychology’s Intellectual Roots Mind-body dualism: belief that mind and body are connected but are different entities  René Descartes- proposed that mind and body interact through the brain’s tiny pineal gland  Placed mind within brain, though mind is spiritual, non-material entity Monism: mind and body are one; mind is not spiritual entity  Thomas Hobbes- mental events correspond to physical events in brain  John Locke- empiricism [ideas/knowledge based on experiences/senses]; reasoning has potential errors Psychophysics: study of how psychologically experienced sensations depend on physical stimuli Charles Darwin  Theory of evolution Structuralism and Functionalism Wilhelm Wundt  1879- university of Leipzig in Germanyfirst psychology lab  Structuralism: Belief that the mind could be studied by breaking it down into basic components  Introspection: “looking within” to study sensations [basic elements of consciousness]  Exposed external stimuli [lights, sounds, tastes] William James  Functionalism: studies functionalism of consciousness [rather than its structures] in adapting to the environment Psychodynamic Perspective  Searches for causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality; emphasizes role of unconscious process; unconscious/conscious aspects of personality influence behaviour  Sigmund Freud- psychody
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