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1 - The nature of psychology.docx

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Psychology
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Psychology 1000
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Dr.Mike

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Chapter 1 Psychology: The Science of Behaviour The Nature of Psychology Intro  Psychology: the theoretically diverse scientific study of behaviour and the mind  Behaviour: actions and response that we can directly observe  Mind: internal states and processes (thoughts and feelings) that cannot be seen directly Types of Psychology  Clinical psychology: study and treatment of mental disorders and their treatments  Cognitive psychology: study mental processes o consciousness, memory, decision making, problem solving  Biopsychology: biological aspect o brain processes, genes, hormones influencing action, thoughts, feelings  Developmental Psychology: physical, psychological and social development during lifespan  Experimental Psychology: basic processes o learning, sensory systems, perception, motivational (hunger)  Industrial-organizational (I/O) Psychology: workplace behaviour o teamwork, work motivation, performance  Personality psychology: relationships between personality traits and their influences (e.g. Freud)  Social psychology: social environment (presence of people) influence behaviour, thoughts, feelings  Animal Behaviour (comparative): study genetics, brain, social, evolution in nature or labs  Behavioural Neuroscience: brain processes, physiological functions of behaviour, sensory, emotions, thoughts  Quantitative: mathematical models of behaviour  Counselling: “normal” and “abnormal” behaviour (usually relationship and employment)  Educational: what’s a good way to teach and learn, education system  School: guidance (school and education related issues); usually no research  Other: e.g. legal aspects and energy conservation Misconceptions about behaviour due to: Psychology’s Scientific Approach  Media Evaluating Information about Behaviour  Books  What exactly is the claim or assertion  Internet  Who is making the claim, are they trustworthy?  Atypical personal experience (empirical)  What’s the evidence and how good is it?  Mental shortcuts e.g. stereotypes  Are other explanations possible?  Fail to consider alternative explanations  What is the most appropriate conclusion?  We don’t test our beliefs once established  Determined by multiple causes Psychology’s Goals  Influenced by heredity and environment  Describe how people and animals behave  Explain and understand the causes of the behaviour  Predict how people and animals will behave in situations  To influence or control behaviour through knowledge Psychology as a Basic and Applied Science  Basic Research: quest for knowledge to describe behaviour and to identify influences of that behaviour  Applied research: solve specific practical problems in everyday life Psychology’s Broad Scope: A Simple Framework Mind-Body and Nature-Nurture Interactions  Mind-Body Interactions: mental processes (psychological) in the brain & function of the body (biological)  Levels of analysis suggests nature, nurture and psychological factors are needed to understand behaviour 1 Perspectives on Behaviour Explanations of Behaviour Cultural and environmental factors (value systems) Individual and Psychological Factors (learning, cognitive processes, etc.) Biological Factors (neural, hormonal, etc.) Psychology’s Intellectual Roots  Mind-Body Dualism: belief that the mind is a spiritual entity, no physical laws that control the body o René Descartes – (not a psychologist) how neurons work and came up with reflex arc mind  Dualism: no amount of research could ever figure out the nonphysical mind  Monism: Greek for “one”; mind and body are one and not a spiritual entity o believe mental events are linked to physical events o Study by measuring physical processes within the brain  Gustav Fechner – (not a psychologist) designed ways to measure psychological properties  Psychophysics: study of physical stimuli and psychological effect  Charles Darwin: evolution shows mind ≠ spiritual entity but product of biological continuity between humans Early Schools: Structuralism and Functionalism  Wilhelm Wundt (1879) o sstucturalism: break the mind into basic components to study ist o 1 experimental psych lab at the U of Leipzig, Germany & trained 1 gen of psychologists o Introspection: look within (close eyes and tell what you feel when exposed to lights, sounds, tastes) o Criticized for being too subjective and it died out  Functionalism: study the functions or significance of behaviour rather than structure o William James and Mary Calkins – studying biological and mental processes o Thought he created the first lab but wrote the first textbook of psychology o E.g. structuralism: how do hands work? Functionalism: Why do we have hands? o How does a behaviour (or mental process) help us to adapt? o Examples: psychobiology, neuroscience, ethology, cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology The Psychodynamic perspective: The Forces Within Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Great Challenge  Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) o Patients had symptoms of blindness, pain, phobias and weren’t producing them consciously o Free Association: patient express any thoughts that came to mind  painful childhood moments, develop awareness, anxiety  develop defense mechanisms o Psychoanalysis: the analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces Psychodynamic Theory  Focus on unconscious experience “mind”  Look for unresolved conflict  Importance of personality  Modern examples: brief psychodynamic therapy, unconscious processing (sexual, aggressive motives) The Behavioural Perspective: The Power of the Environment Origins of the Behavioural Perspective  Ivan Pavlov - Learning occurs when events are associated with each other  Classical conditioning: the study of learning that focuses on reflex responses 2 Behaviourism  John B. Watson opposed the “mentalism” of the structuralist, functionalists & psychoanalysts o Psychology = observable behaviour, forget the “mind” o B.F. Skinner believed that by changing the environment, it changes the behaviour (observable)  Operant conditioning – behaviour controlled by consequences and awards  Cognitive Behaviourism  Learning experiences & environment: give us info we need to behave effectively o Radical Behaviourism: power of environment to change behaviour in beneficial ways  Modern examples: learning theories, behaviour modification (ways to ↓ bad and ↑ positive behaviour) Jean Piaget nd  After Freud, 2 most important  Develop intelligent scales to measure how kids develop intelligence  Piaget Theory – kids develop differently, and think differently than adults The Humanistic perspective: Self-Actualization and Positive Psychology  Humanistic Perspective: attempt to find meaning in one’s existence by own conscious force o Both biological and environmental o Modern examples: Carl Rogers’ therapy, the “self”  At therapy, wait for patient to speak (but freud would ask, what’s wrong with you) o Abraham Maslow (humanist)  self-actualization: reaching one’s individual potential, values and choices  Positive Psychology Movement: study of human strengths, fulfillment, optimal living The Cognitive Perspective: The Thinking Human  The nature of the mind and mental processes influence behaviour  Gestalt Psychology o Focus on perception and experience o Wolfgang Kohler – how individuals think (e.g. How animals can put things together) o Both biological and environmental  Learning a language is too complicated to be explained by behavioural principles  Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger) o inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, attitudes (esp. relating to behavioural decisions, attitude change)  The Modern Cognitive Perspective  memory, factors & the nature of attention, consciousness & unconscious processes influence behaviour  Cognitive Neuroscience: examine brain activity while people engage in cognitive tasks The Sociocultural Perspective: The Embedded Human  how social environment, cultural learning influence behaviour, thoughts, feelings  Kurt Lewin - father of social psychology The Social Psychological Component  Presence: actual physical presence, behaviour changes  Implied Presence: other people are aware  Imagined Presence: thought it was presence The Cultural component  Culture: enduring values, beliefs, behaviours and traditions shared by a large group of people and passed on  Norms: rules that specify the behaviour for that group  Cultural Psychology: how culture is passed to its members; psychological similarities and diffs among cultures o Individualism: personal goals and self-identity based on attributes and achievements o Collectivism: individual goals are less important to group, personal identity ties to family, social groups 3 The Biological Perspective: The Brain, Genes and Evolution  how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behaviour Behavioural Neuroscience (Physiological Psychology)  Karl Lashley – brain damaged rats run mazes & observed various brain areas affected by learning, memory o What happens when the structure is taken away  Donald O. Hebb – changes in connections of nerve cells provide basis for learning, memory, perception o discover neurotransmitters: nerve cell release chemicals to communicate with another  Wilder Penfield o Operates with people that have severe epilepsy o Pen with electric current touch different parts of brain and watch the reaction – map the cortex The Neuroscience of Imaging Studies  E. G. Boring said Franz Joseph Gall noticed pronounced eyes had superior memories but not related o Studied the mental characteristics and the shape of one’s head  Lashley and Franz experiment removal of cortex of animals = small loss in function Behaviour Genetics  The study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors  Animals can be bred for physical and behavioural traits Evolutionary Psychology  Darwin o natural selection: inherited traits give advantage  more likely to survive & pass on traits  Evolutionary psychology: how evolution shaped modern human behaviour o Human mental abilities and behavioural tendencies evolved along with a changing body o Natural selection of humans (brain structure and me
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