Textbook Notes (369,153)
Canada (162,424)
Psychology (4,938)
Psychology 1000 (1,640)
Dr.Mike (707)

1 - The nature of psychology.docx

11 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 11 pages of the document.
Chapter 1 Psychology: The Science of Behaviour The Nature of Psychology Intro  Psychology: the theoretically diverse scientific study of behaviour and the mind  Behaviour: actions and response that we can directly observe  Mind: internal states and processes (thoughts and feelings) that cannot be seen directly Types of Psychology  Clinical psychology: study and treatment of mental disorders and their treatments  Cognitive psychology: study mental processes o consciousness, memory, decision making, problem solving  Biopsychology: biological aspect o brain processes, genes, hormones influencing action, thoughts, feelings  Developmental Psychology: physical, psychological and social development during lifespan  Experimental Psychology: basic processes o learning, sensory systems, perception, motivational (hunger)  Industrial-organizational (I/O) Psychology: workplace behaviour o teamwork, work motivation, performance  Personality psychology: relationships between personality traits and their influences (e.g. Freud)  Social psychology: social environment (presence of people) influence behaviour, thoughts, feelings  Animal Behaviour (comparative): study genetics, brain, social, evolution in nature or labs  Behavioural Neuroscience: brain processes, physiological functions of behaviour, sensory, emotions, thoughts  Quantitative: mathematical models of behaviour  Counselling: “normal” and “abnormal” behaviour (usually relationship and employment)  Educational: what’s a good way to teach and learn, education system  School: guidance (school and education related issues); usually no research  Other: e.g. legal aspects and energy conservation Misconceptions about behaviour due to: Psychology’s Scientific Approach  Media Evaluating Information about Behaviour  Books  What exactly is the claim or assertion  Internet  Who is making the claim, are they trustworthy?  Atypical personal experience (empirical)  What’s the evidence and how good is it?  Mental shortcuts e.g. stereotypes  Are other explanations possible?  Fail to consider alternative explanations  What is the most appropriate conclusion?  We don’t test our beliefs once established  Determined by multiple causes Psychology’s Goals  Influenced by heredity and environment  Describe how people and animals behave  Explain and understand the causes of the behaviour  Predict how people and animals will behave in situations  To influence or control behaviour through knowledge Psychology as a Basic and Applied Science  Basic Research: quest for knowledge to describe behaviour and to identify influences of that behaviour  Applied research: solve specific practical problems in everyday life Psychology’s Broad Scope: A Simple Framework Mind-Body and Nature-Nurture Interactions  Mind-Body Interactions: mental processes (psychological) in the brain & function of the body (biological)  Levels of analysis suggests nature, nurture and psychological factors are needed to understand behaviour 1 Perspectives on Behaviour Explanations of Behaviour Cultural and environmental factors (value systems) Individual and Psychological Factors (learning, cognitive processes, etc.) Biological Factors (neural, hormonal, etc.) Psychology’s Intellectual Roots  Mind-Body Dualism: belief that the mind is a spiritual entity, no physical laws that control the body o René Descartes – (not a psychologist) how neurons work and came up with reflex arc mind  Dualism: no amount of research could ever figure out the nonphysical mind  Monism: Greek for “one”; mind and body are one and not a spiritual entity o believe mental events are linked to physical events o Study by measuring physical processes within the brain  Gustav Fechner – (not a psychologist) designed ways to measure psychological properties  Psychophysics: study of physical stimuli and psychological effect  Charles Darwin: evolution shows mind ≠ spiritual entity but product of biological continuity between humans Early Schools: Structuralism and Functionalism  Wilhelm Wundt (1879) o sstucturalism: break the mind into basic components to study ist o 1 experimental psych lab at the U of Leipzig, Germany & trained 1 gen of psychologists o Introspection: look within (close eyes and tell what you feel when exposed to lights, sounds, tastes) o Criticized for being too subjective and it died out  Functionalism: study the functions or significance of behaviour rather than structure o William James and Mary Calkins – studying biological and mental processes o Thought he created the first lab but wrote the first textbook of psychology o E.g. structuralism: how do hands work? Functionalism: Why do we have hands? o How does a behaviour (or mental process) help us to adapt? o Examples: psychobiology, neuroscience, ethology, cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology The Psychodynamic perspective: The Forces Within Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Great Challenge  Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) o Patients had symptoms of blindness, pain, phobias and weren’t producing them consciously o Free Association: patient express any thoughts that came to mind  painful childhood moments, develop awareness, anxiety  develop defense mechanisms o Psychoanalysis: the analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces Psychodynamic Theory  Focus on unconscious experience “mind”  Look for unresolved conflict  Importance of personality  Modern examples: brief psychodynamic therapy, unconscious processing (sexual, aggressive motives) The Behavioural Perspective: The Power of the Environment Origins of the Behavioural Perspective  Ivan Pavlov - Learning occurs when events are associated with each other  Classical conditioning: the study of learning that focuses on reflex responses 2 Behaviourism  John B. Watson opposed the “mentalism” of the structuralist, functionalists & psychoanalysts o Psychology = observable behaviour, forget the “mind” o B.F. Skinner believed that by changing the environment, it changes the behaviour (observable)  Operant conditioning – behaviour controlled by consequences and awards  Cognitive Behaviourism  Learning experiences & environment: give us info we need to behave effectively o Radical Behaviourism: power of environment to change behaviour in beneficial ways  Modern examples: learning theories, behaviour modification (ways to ↓ bad and ↑ positive behaviour) Jean Piaget nd  After Freud, 2 most important  Develop intelligent scales to measure how kids develop intelligence  Piaget Theory – kids develop differently, and think differently than adults The Humanistic perspective: Self-Actualization and Positive Psychology  Humanistic Perspective: attempt to find meaning in one’s existence by own conscious force o Both biological and environmental o Modern examples: Carl Rogers’ therapy, the “self”  At therapy, wait for patient to speak (but freud would ask, what’s wrong with you) o Abraham Maslow (humanist)  self-actualization: reaching one’s individual potential, values and choices  Positive Psychology Movement: study of human strengths, fulfillment, optimal living The Cognitive Perspective: The Thinking Human  The nature of the mind and mental processes influence behaviour  Gestalt Psychology o Focus on perception and experience o Wolfgang Kohler – how individuals think (e.g. How animals can put things together) o Both biological and environmental  Learning a language is too complicated to be explained by behavioural principles  Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger) o inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, attitudes (esp. relating to behavioural decisions, attitude change)  The Modern Cognitive Perspective  memory, factors & the nature of attention, consciousness & unconscious processes influence behaviour  Cognitive Neuroscience: examine brain activity while people engage in cognitive tasks The Sociocultural Perspective: The Embedded Human  how social environment, cultural learning influence behaviour, thoughts, feelings  Kurt Lewin - father of social psychology The Social Psychological Component  Presence: actual physical presence, behaviour changes  Implied Presence: other people are aware  Imagined Presence: thought it was presence The Cultural component  Culture: enduring values, beliefs, behaviours and traditions shared by a large group of people and passed on  Norms: rules that specify the behaviour for that group  Cultural Psychology: how culture is passed to its members; psychological similarities and diffs among cultures o Individualism: personal goals and self-identity based on attributes and achievements o Collectivism: individual goals are less important to group, personal identity ties to family, social groups 3 The Biological Perspective: The Brain, Genes and Evolution  how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behaviour Behavioural Neuroscience (Physiological Psychology)  Karl Lashley – brain damaged rats run mazes & observed various brain areas affected by learning, memory o What happens when the structure is taken away  Donald O. Hebb – changes in connections of nerve cells provide basis for learning, memory, perception o discover neurotransmitters: nerve cell release chemicals to communicate with another  Wilder Penfield o Operates with people that have severe epilepsy o Pen with electric current touch different parts of brain and watch the reaction – map the cortex The Neuroscience of Imaging Studies  E. G. Boring said Franz Joseph Gall noticed pronounced eyes had superior memories but not related o Studied the mental characteristics and the shape of one’s head  Lashley and Franz experiment removal of cortex of animals = small loss in function Behaviour Genetics  The study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors  Animals can be bred for physical and behavioural traits Evolutionary Psychology  Darwin o natural selection: inherited traits give advantage  more likely to survive & pass on traits  Evolutionary psychology: how evolution shaped modern human behaviour o Human mental abilities and behavioural tendencies evolved along with a changing body o Natural selection of humans (brain structure and me
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.