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8 - Memory.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 8 Memory Memory as Information Processing  Memory: process that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information o Encoding: getting info into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes o Storage: retaining information over time o Retrieval: pull information out of storage when we want to use it A Three-Component Model  William James o memory has distinct yet interacting components  one temporary and other long lasting  Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin o Memory has sensory memory, short-term or working memory, long term memory Sensory Memory  Holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized o Sensory registers - Initial information processes that holds info for fraction of a second o Iconic store - Visual sensory register o Echoic store - Auditory sensory register (lasts longer than iconic) Short-Term/Working Memory  Holds information by rehearsal that we are conscious of at any given time  No rehearsal = Info lost (forgetting)  Memory Codes o To be retained in short & long-term memory, info that leaves sensory memory is represented by a code o Visual, phonological, semantic encoding, motor encoding (patterns of movement)  form of memory code often does not correspond to the form of original stimulus  Capacity and Duration o Hold no more than 5 – 9 meaningful items in short term (20 seconds) o Chunking: combining individual items into a larger units of meaning o Maintenance Rehearsal: simple repetition of information o Elaborative Rehearsal: focusing on the meaning of info or relating it to other things we already know  More effective in transferring it to long term  Putting short-term memory “to work” o Working memory  Auditory (phonological loop) - when you repeat  Visual-Spatial - images and spatial information, mental maps  Episodic buffer where long term, auditory and visual made available for conscious awareness  Used in chunking o Central executive (prefrontal cortex)  Directs how much attention to rehearse  Recall of long term memory  Integrates input o Acoustic Coding - same sounding words Long Term Memory  Vast unlimited capacity library of more durable “hard” stored memories  Serial Position Effect: U shaped pattern caused by memory easiest recalled at beginning and end o Primacy Effect: reflecting the superior of recall of early words  Quickly rehearse and transfer to long term memory o Recency Effect: superior recall of the most recent words  Most recent words are not bumped out of short term memory by new information  Can be wiped out by time and distraction 2 Encoding: Entering Information Effortful and Automatic Processing DIAGRAM PG 286  Effortful Processing: encoding that is initiated intentionally and require conscious attention o E.g. rehearsing, making lists, taking class notes  Automatic Processing: encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention o E.g. frequency, sequence, timing of events Levels of Processing: When Deeper is Better  Structural Encoding: notice how the word looks  Phonological Encoding: sounding out the word and then judge whether it matches  Semantic Encoding: pay attention to what the word means  Levels of Processing: the more we deeply process information, the better it will be remembered o e.g. semantic is the deepest processing Exposure and Rehearsal  simple repeated exposure to a stimulus without stopping to think about it is shallow processing  Elaborative rehearsal is better than maintenance rehearsal o organize information and think about how it relates to ourselves, concepts or example we already know Organization and Imagery  Different system to encode the orders  E.g. acronyms Hierarchies and Chunking  Organizing material in a hierarchy o memory is enhanced by associations between concepts o Enhances our understanding how they are related  Chunking enhances memory Mnemonic Devices  The art of improving memory  Do not reduce the amount of raw information you have to encode into memory o Reorganize info into meaningful units and provide cue to help you retrieve information from long term Visual Imagery  Dual Coding Theory: encoding information from long term using verbal and nonverbal codes enhances memory o Abstract concepts are easier to encode semantically than visually  Method of Loci (places): imagery technique  to remember a list of items or concepts, take an imaginary stroll How Prior Knowledge Shapes Encoding  form a mental representation that captures the essential meaning or gist of that event Schemas: Our Mental Organizers  mental framework of an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world  form them through experience and they can strongly influence the way we encode material in memory  e.g. jumbled paragraph may seem like it doesn’t make sense until told what the topic is Schemas, Encoding and Expertise  music acquires expert knowledge as a process of developing schemas  experts can memorize things better if they are arranged in a meaningful way 3 Storage: Retaining Information Memory as a Network Associative Networks  massive network of associated ideas and concepts  each concept or unit of information is represented by a node o the lines represent association between concepts  shorter lines = stronger associations  spreading activation of one concept leads to activation of other concepts  Priming: activation of one concept or one unit of information by another o Think about a concept if its related o Things are associated with each other in meaning o The closer the meaning the closer the association Neural Networks  Each node is more like a small information processing unit  Each pattern is represented by a particular pattern or set of nodes that becomes activated simultaneously  Parallel Distributed Processing Models - many nodes in brain fire in parallel with each other Types of Long-Term Memory Declarative and Procedural Memory  Declarative memory: factual knowledge and includes two subcategories o Episodic memory: personal experiences of when, where & what happened in the episodes of our lives o Semantic memory: general factual knowledge about world and language e.g. words, concepts o to demonstrate our knowledge, we have to declare/tell it  Procedural Memory: reflected in skills and actions o Reflected by classically conditioned responses Explicit and Implicit Memory  Explicit Memory: conscious or intentional memory retrieval when you consciously recognize, recall something o Recognition requires us to decide whether a stimulus is familiar o Recall requires spontaneous memory retrieval o Cued recall are hints given to stimulate memory  Implicit Memory: memory influences behaviour without conscious awareness o Priming Tasks: word stems have activated/primed your stored mental representations of these words 4 Retrieval: Accessing Information  Retrieval Cue: any stimulus, internal or external that stimulates activation of info stored in long-term memory o E.g. priming – trigger associated elements The Value of Multiple and Self-Generated Cues  Multiple cues o If one fails, another may activate the memory The Value of Distinctiveness  Distinctive stimuli are better remembered than nondistinctive ones Flashbulb Memory: Fogging Up the Picture  Recollections that seems so vive, so clear  Distinctive, positive or negative events that evoke strong emotional reactions  Does not insist that these memories are accurate  Feel confident that memories are accurate because remember it in a lot of detail Context, State and Mood Effects on Memory  Encoding Specificity Principle: same conditions present during retrieval and encoding enhances memory Context-Dependent Memory: Returning to the Scene  Typically easier to remember something in the same environment in which it was acquired State-Dependent memory: Arousal, Drugs and Mood
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