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Chapter 1

Psych1000 - Chapter 1: AWESOME notes

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Perspectives on Behaviour: Chapter 1: pg10 -Psychology’s (an empirical science) broad scope thanks to roots in varied disciplines: such as philosophy, medicine, and the biological and physical sciences. -caused varied perspectives (different ways of viewing people) - influence science by: 1) advances occur as existing beliefs are challenged 2) debate ensues and scientist seek new evidence to solve it 3) supporting elements of contrasting perspectives merge into a new framework 4) continuous challenging by new viewpoints leads to progress Psychology intellectual roots: -mind-body problem: is the mind an inner agent of consciousness and thoughts separate from body, or is it part of body’s activities? -mind-body dualism: -mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern body -research on physical body cannot unravel mysteries of nonphysical mind - Rene Descartes proposed mind and body interact through pineal gland in brain: mind can become aware of bodily sensations and control body functions -supporter of dualism, although considered mind as in the brain -monism: -mind and body are one, not separate spiritual entity -mental events correspond to physical events in brain (Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 english philosopher) -research on physical brain processes could be used to study mind -John Locke & others from School of British Empiricism (all ideas and knowledge are gained by senses/empirically) -modern science: observation is more valid than reason, since reason can be faulty -1870 europe, electrically stimulate brain areas to map areas that control body movements -linking brain damage in certain areas to behavioural and mental issues -SHOWS empirical natsci methods could be used to study mental processes -psychophysics (mid1800s Germans): psychological sensations depend on physical stimuli -Charles Darwin theory of evolution (against religion and philosophy) supports monism: brain is not spiritual but continuation of other species, therefore we could study other species to help Early Schools: Structuralism vs. Functionalism: -*first psychology lab by Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) at Uni of Leipzig, Germany -taught students Kirschmann and Balvin, founders of psych dept & Humphrey: began tradition of psych research (all at Canadian Unis) -Titchener and Wundt psych lab at Cornell, analyzed mind in terms of basic components: structuralism  died out in decades but left mark -structuralists used introspection (looking within) to study sensations, basic elements of consciousness -functionalism: -study functions of consciousness rather than structure -influences by Darwin theory of evolution -“Why do we have hands?” not “lets study movement using tendons, muscles, etc” -William James (Harvard) widened scope of psych by including study of bio and mental processes and overt behaviour. Taught Mary Calkins female prez of APA -died out but still endures in: cognitive psychology (mental processes) and evolutionary psychology (adaptiveness of behaviour) 1)Psychodynamic Perspective: -searches causes for behaviours within inner workings of personality (unique pattern of emotions, motives, etc) -emphasizes role of subconscious processes: -Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) first and most influential pd theory -tramatic childhood memories (usually sexual) can cause symptoms such as blindness, pain, paralysis, phobias  he believed subconscious part of mind infl. behaviour -free association: patients talk bout whatever comes to mind, improves symptoms -psychoanalysis: analysis of internal and mostly unconscious psych. Forces -sexual and aggressive drives punished in childhood cause anxiety and try to defend against them by repression -ALL BEHVAIOUR REPS. INTERNAL IMPULSES VS. DEFENSES ->dynamic Modern Psychodynamic Theory: super imp for half of 20 century -still focus on unc and con personality affects behaviour -focus more on how early relationship with caregivers shape views of self and others than sexual & aggressive motives Ex. Shy teenager caused by fear of parental rejection as child -Freud’s specific version largely unaccepted nowadays, but unc processing proven by research 2)Behavioural Perspective: opposes mentalists perspectives -role of external environment on governing actions: 1) stimuli in immediate environment 2)habits from previous life exp. -John Locke empiricist, at birth human mind is blank tablet “tabula rasa” upon which exps are written -Ivan Pavlov 1900s: learning occurs when events associated with each other (ex. Dogs learn to salivate on sound of food bell) -Thorndike: learn from consequences of actions: law of effect Behaviourism: (laws of learning, applies to all organisms) -*Watson 1913: environmental control of behaviour through learning experiences -observable behaviour not inner consciousness (opposed mentalists like structuralists, functionalists, psychoanalysts) -said he could raise any child to be whatever he wants by training it -*Skinner: -behaviour influenced by outside world only -Ex. Shy guy got rejected by girls in past, but girl asks Ray out, nice date = positive consq. reinforced their behaviour -social engineering aka radical behaviourism, harnesses power of envirnm to shape behaviour IN BENEFICIAL WAYS FOR WELFARE OF HUMANS -1960s behaviour modification decrease bad behave and vice versa by manipulating envirmental factors -waned out by 70s but still super imp today -Cognitive Behaviourism: - Albert Bandura: environment effects behaviour by affecting our thoughts -learning exp. and environments affect behaviour by telling us how to behave effectively 3)Humanistic Perspective: -free will, personal growth, find meaning in one’s existence -rejects idea of unconscious
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