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Chapter 2

Psych1000 Chapter 2 - AWESOME notes

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 2 Psychology 1000 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES IN PSYCHOLOGY: -uses scientific method -inquiry driven by curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness -Darley and Latane: the presence of multiple bystanders causes diffusion of responsibility: -each person feels less personal responsibility for intervening violent crime on Kitty -Steps of Scientific Process: ****see Fig. 2.1 pg 39 as relates to Darley and Latane experiment**** 1) Identify a Question of Interest: -from media or peers or world, scientists find question that interests them 2) Gather Information and Form Hypothesis -determine whether any pre-existing studies, theories and other info might help answer it -then, form hypothesis: specific prediction about phenomenon often in the form: If...then 3) Test Hypothesis by Conducting Research 4) Analyze Data, Draw Tentative Conclusions, and Report Findings to Scientific Community -publishing research is essential to scientific progress: allows scientists to learn about new ideas and findings, evaluate, challenge or expand on it 5) Build a Body of Knowledge -ask further questions, formulate & test new hypotheses -enough evidence may lead to theory: set of broader formal statements explaining how/why events are related: usually relating behaviour and its causes Two Approaches to Understanding Behaviour 1) Hindsight (After-the-Fact Understanding) -looking back on something and using common sense and folk knowledge to explain it -problem: related past events can be explained in many different ways: how do we know which is most accurate? -ex. Darley and Latane diffusion of responsibility explanation was based on info of the incident from the media 2) Understanding through Prediction, Control and Theory Building -the more scientific approach -theories are strongest test of scientific understanding: integrated network of predictions -incorporates existing facts and observations within a single broad framework -testable -supported by research findings -law of parsimony: if 2 theories can explain the same thing, simpler one is preferred -never considered absolute truth -prediction does not require understanding Defining & Measuring Variables -variable: any factor or characteristic that can vary ex. people’s sex, GPA -operational definition: defines variable in terms of specific procedures used to produce/measure it -changes abstract concepts to measurable and observable ones (ex. self esteem) Measurement techniques: often combine many within single study Self-Reports -self-reports measures ask people to report on their own knowledge, beliefs, experience, behaviour -interviews and questionnaires -may be distorted by social desirability bias: tendency to respond in socially acceptable manner rather than true feelings or behaviour -Paulhus: minimize it by wording questions in a sneaky way & ensuring anonymity and confidentiality -Over-Claiming Questionnaire: measure degree of SDB: see if participants claim familiarity with non-existent items Reports by Others -ex. questionnaires to the person’s spouse, teachers, employer about their behaviour Measures of Overt Behaviour (directly observable behaviour) -ex. reaction time: how rapidly they respond to stimulus -often coding systems are developed to categorize behaviour ex. “assists child” “praises child” “criticizes child” -must be used properly to get reliable measurements: consistent observations -humans/animals may behave differently when they know they’re observed -unobtrusive measures: record behaviour in way that keeps participants unaware that certain responses are being measured -can also use archival measures: records and documents that already exists (ex. school transcript) Specialized Psychological Tests: -personality tests: typically contains questions how a person typically feels/behaves -performance tests: ex. intelligence tests: assemble objects or solve arithmetic problems ex. neuropsychological tests: help diagnose normal/abnormal brain functioning using mental and physical tasks, ex. recalling list of words or manipulating objects Physiological Measures: -ex. heart rate, hormonal secretions, brain functioning -problem: don’t always understand what they mean METHODS OF RESEARCH: Descriptive Research: Recording Events: -descriptive research: seeks to identify how humans/animals behave, usually in natural setting, may reveal cause-effect relations Case Studies: -case study: in-depth analysis of an individual, group, event -discover principles of behaviour true for all general people/situations -advantages: -enables scientists to closely study rare phenomena -challenge validity of a theory or belief -source of new ideas/hypotheses for further investigation -disadvantages: -poor sources of cause-effect -may not generalize to other people/situations -generalization needs more case studies, more controlled methods, diff. cultural groups -measurement bias/observer bias: observer not objective, worrisome in case studies -failure to thrive example: lack of rapid infant weight gain neg. impacts later physical/mental growth -mentally challenged mothers went through training by Surrey Place Centre Toronto for feeding and nutrition: it worked -but, some other change could have been responsible for this Naturalistic Observation -naturalistic observation: researcher observes behaviour as occurs in natural setting and avoids influencing it -Jane Goodall: chimpanzees display behaviours, ex. using tools, formerly believed to only be human capability -cannot make clear cause-effect conclusions, too many variables involved in natural setting -observer bias possible -presence of observer may change participant behaviour -try to disguise -wait for habituation: delay data collection until participants get used it/ignore their presence Survey Research: -info obtained by questionnaires/interviews, strongest advantage: can closely portray whole population -Terracciano: while cultural stereotype of national character may define national identity, does not reflect actual assessed personality traits of members of the culture -2 key concepts: -population: all individuals whom we are interested in drawing conclusion -sample: subset of individuals drawn from larger population of interest, must be representative -representative sample: proportionally reflects important characteristic of population -random sampling: every member of population has equal probability of being chosen for study -stratified random sampling: first divide population into subgroups based on characteristics (gender, culture, age) -internet questionnaires: no method for random sampling, no control of data quality/honesty, but still comparatively reliable -disadvantages: -no cause-effect conclusions can be made -rely on self-report: can be distorted by SDB, interviewer bias, inaccurate perception of questions and own behaviour -sometimes by chance can be non-representative sample (<5%)  causes faulty beliefs of generalization Correlational Research: Measuring Associations between Events -correlational research: studies association between naturally occurring events/variables -measure, NOT manipulate 1) researcher measure variable X, ex. birth order 2) measures a second variable Y, ex. personality trait 3) statistically determines whether X and Y are related -bidirectionality problem (two-way causality): does X influence Y, or Y influence X, or both -spurious problem: non-genuine relationship between variables -third variable problem: Z is responsible for what looks like relation between X and Y -Therefore, CANNOT draw cause-effect relations (confounding of variables) major disadvantage -Advantages: (mostly helps extend other research or pave a path for new research, not so great on own) -helps test generalization of cause-effect relations found in laboratory -find relations for further lab investigation -practically and ethically, some questions cannot be research in experiments, only correlational -allows to make predictions Correlation Coefficient: (r) -correlational coefficient: statistic indicates direction and strength of relation between variables -(+r) positive correlation: higher scores on X associated with higher scores on Y -(-r) negative correlation: higher scores on X associated with lower scores on Y -ranges from: +1.00 to -1.00 -the closer to -1 or +1 the stronger the relation, 0 means no relation -scatterplots: graphs that show correlation between 2 variables Experiments: Examining Cause-Effect -can establish cause-effect relations MANIPULATE, not just measure like other methods 1) researcher manipulates/controls one or more variables 2) researcher measures whether this manipulation influences other variables 3) researcher attempts to control extraneous factors that might influence outcome -Approach: -start out with equivalent groups of participants -treat them equally in all respects except for variable of interest -isolate variable and manipulate it -measure how groups respond -independent variable: factor that experimenter manipulates/controls -must have 2 levels: usually an experimental level and control level, or 2 experimental levels -dependent variable: factor measured by experimenter & may be influenced by IV (can be many DVs per IV) Experimental and Control Groups: -experimental group: receives treatment or an active level of IV, often multiple -control group: not exposed to treatment or receives 0-level of IV -provides standard of behaviour to compare to Two Ways to Design Experiment: 1) between groups/between subjects design: each group composed of a different set of participants -to avoid un-equal groups: random assignment: each person has equal likelihood of being assigned to either group: used to balance any differences 2) repeated measures/within subjects design: each participant exposed to all conditions of IV -must make sure they don’t get fatigued, more confident, habituated, etc. for the second test -counterbalancing: order of conditions varied so there’s no advantage of one condition over the other (ex. half group drives w/o cellpho
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