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Chapter 17

Psych 1000 Chapter 17 Summary

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 17: Psychological Treatment Psychotherapies Psychoanalysis: based on Freud's theories, goal is insight—bringing unconscious conflicts to consciousness Hidden inner conflicts; repressed wishes-- Defence Mechanisms---Insight into the causes of psychological disorders—Consciousness--These disorders fade away FreeAssociation: expressing thought and feelings without censorship, Freudian slips (therapist looking for cues, why Freud used a couch, wanted them to be relaxed and loosen their conscious restraints) Dream Analysis: manifest (storyline) vs latent (actual meaning) content Resistance: nearing repressed conflict, patients miss appointments or argue when they are close to finding the heart of the matter Transference: when client's feelings about therapist are same as toward parent, psychoanalysists want this to occur—they want a blank slate for client to express themselves, tap to unconscious feelings Role of therapist is interpretation, find hidden issues YAVIS- young, attractive, verbal, insightful, successful ($ to be in therapy for that period of time) Humanistic Therapies – focus on people's striving for personal growth – instead of inner conflicts, humanistic therapy focuses on environmental conditions that block growth and development – helps clients become more aware of their own feelings, and to own their feelings Rogers- client-centred therapy – emphasizes supportive emotional climate – concentrates on elimination irrational conditions of worth 3 conditions of therapeutic climate 1. Genuineness 2. Unconditional Positive Regard (separate client from behaviour) 3. Empathy (put yourself in other peoples shoes and understand how they feel) Role of therapist is clarification Fritz Perls- Gestalt (Whole) Therapy – designed to increase individuals' awareness of their own feelings – understand who they are and what they want, not other people, owning your feelings Techniques – role playing (helps when people are torn) – imaginary dialogue (empty chair technique) – express pent up feelings (rage, crying, used in group therapies) Evaluating Humanistic Theories- like Freud, can be quite time consuming, better suited to YAVIS in order to benefit Cognitive Therapies - powerful therapy, advantage (unlike antidepressants which relapse) provide to make future bouts of depression less likely, more work though, insight therapy (IT)- try to make you understand the cause of your psychological distress, require clear thinking Rational-Emotive Therapy (Ellis): overcoming irrational beliefs about the way things are, make people overreact to normal life events, IT, very confrontational - therapist's role to detect and challenge these beliefs – musterbation (must be this way or I will die, cant get through the day), awfulizing (this is so awful, how could it rain today?) – ABCD theory of emotion – Activating Event (fail test) → Beliefs (shouldn't be in uni) → Emotional Consequences (life is over) → Disputing Beliefs (why does failing a test mean my life is over?) Beck's Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: focus on restructuring automatic negative thinking patterns – detect cognitive tendencies that lead to depression (eg all or nothing thinking) – blend of insight and behavioural therapy – often uses “homework” assignments to produce new behaviours (write down feelings, events) Illogical Patterns on thought- overgeneralization (one specific event turning it global, bf dumped her= no boys will ever like her) – explaining away positive occurrences (anything good=luck, anything bad=personally responsible) – selective perception (focus on the bad, overlook the good ones) – magnifying the importance of negative events (fail exam= I should drop out of uni) – all-or-nothing thinking (black/white, I have to be perfect or I'm a failure) Evaluating Cognitive Therapy- don’t have to go for years, can go for a few sessions, shorter terms Behavioural Therapies- focus on behaviour: changing maladaptive patterns on behaviour, focus on the behaviour you want to change - change through operant (rewards/punishments) and classical (association) conditioning techniques - behavioural therapies view symptoms
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