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Chapter 14

Psych 1000 Chapter 14 Summary

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 14: Personality Personality- individuals' unique and relatively stable patterns of behaviour, thoughts, and feelings Personality theories attempt to describe and/or explain ways in which people differ in their general style of behaviour (usually focus on one, not both) Psychodynamic Theories - personality is shaped by the way people channel their unconscious motivations Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Freud's model of the mind- unconscious motivation that drives our behaviour, innate desire to please ourselves Divisions of the mind: id: pleasure principle (devil, wants what it wants, sexual and aggressive urges) ego: reality principle (balance between devil/angel and reality, struggle) superego: conscience (parenting/socializing, angel) Anxiety and defense mechanisms: – regression- most basic way the ego deals with sexual urges (ends up coming out in other ways) – rationalization- the way we deal with things that bother us (ate cake, “was about to go bad) – intellectualization- cant deal with it, so you deny pain, take emotion from the event to a dry/intellectual thought about it (long distance relationship) – displacement- redirect emotion to a less dangerous target (boss yells at man, yells at wife, yells at kids, kid kicks dog) – projection- take own desires and project on other people (women wants to cheat on her husband, accuses him of cheating on her, gay people) – reaction formation- turning urge into its opposite to make it easier to deal with (think friends bf is hot, then start hating him) – sublimation- repressed impulse (really aggressive person becomes a lawyer, boxer etc) Too much psychic energy spent on defense mechanisms= energy that could be better spent on developing oneself Stages of Psychosexual Development: Pleasure principle satisfied by: Oral Stage (Birth-2)- feeding Anal Stage (2-3)- toilet trained Phallic Stage (4-6) – stimulate genitals Oedipal (boys)/Electra (girls) Crisis- see opposite parent sexually, wants to marry them Latency (age 7-puberty)- trying to gain mastery in sports, school, social environment Genital Stage (puberty on)- adult stage, healthy sexual relationships Fixations- if we are over/under developed at stages Neo-Freudians Carl Jung- collective unconscious (DNAlevels that all of humanity shares on some deep fundamental level), archetypes (symbols, roles- commonalities worldwide) Object relations- carrying on Freud’s ideas of early experiences in shaping our personality - early relations influence later ones, evaluating psychodynamic theories (defining, measuring, testing) Humanistic Theories - individuals personalities are shaped by the needs that they are striving to fulfill on their way to self-actualization - Basic tenets of humanist
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