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Chapter 13

Psych 1000 Chapter 13 Summary

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Social Psychology: Chapter 13 Social Thinking and Perception Attributions- judgements about causes of our own and other people's behaviour and outcomes - ways we try and figure out peoples behaviour Personal (Internal)Attributions- peoples behaviour is caused by their characteristics Situational (External) Attributions- aspects of situation cause behaviour (crying at a funeral) Attributional Biases FundamentalAttribution Error- when explaining others' behaviour, we tend to: – Underestimate impact of situational factors (external) – Overestimate role of personal factors (internal) -Applies to others not ourselves- have more information on ourselves (driving slow, car behind thinks we are slow but we know we are going slow because of car in front of us) - Cultural differences- stronger in NorthAmerica than it is in other cultures, N.Aand Europe tend to be more individualistic (captain of their own destiny), other cultures people see themselves more collectively, imbedded in relationships with others, see their roles as wholes - Self-Serving Bias- explain our own behaviour, cut yourselves more slack, see ourselves positively - more personal attributions for success (depressed people= more personal attribution for failures) - more situational attributions for failures (depressed people= situational for success, “I just got lucky on that test” Schemas and Stereotypes Schemas: mental representations of objects or categories of objects, acquire as we grow (what happens when you go to a restaurant, movies), standards, life experiences, see the world through the schema filter (hard to change), affect perception - schemas aid in the categorization of events Stereotypes: form of schema applied to people of certain characteristics (old people, gay, black), may be correct or incorrect However, they: – guide attention (didn't like women drivers, notice their accidents more than a male) – guide interpretation (interpret ambiguous situations to be consistent with our preexistent stereotypes, prejudice) – guide memory (chunking, fits into our conception of the world) – and may influence our won and others' behaviour Self-Fulfilling Prophecies- creating what you expect, expectations affect behaviour toward others, causing expected behaviours that confirm expectations, beliefs influence actions Your Expectation (George is unfriendly) causes--> Your behaviour (unfriendly, guarded) causes--> George response in an unfriendly fashion) = confirms expectations, george responds to behaviour Attitudes- positive or negative evaluative reactions towards a stimulus (person, thing, idea, cause), attitudes don’t necessarily translate into behaviour Affect- feelings, emotions towards something, advertisers focus on this (I like chocolate ice cream) Behaviours- vote for them because of feelings (I eat chocolate ice cream) Cognitions- thoughts about the attitude object (Chocolate has calcium, I need it in my diet) Do attitudes influence behaviour? 3 Factors -Attitude-Behaviour relationship strongest when: 1. Situational factors are weak 2. Attitudes are strongly held 3. Attitudes predict general rather than specific classes of behaviour (pro-environment, don’t recycle but don’t own a car) Does behaviour influence attitudes? Cognitive Dissonance Theory- strive for consistency in cognitions (includes behaviour)- I believe in a healthy lifestyle so I workout and eat well - 2 inconsistent cognitions= cognitive dissonance (I don’t like this person but I was nice to them, I like the NDP but I voted Liberal) - Dissonance is an unpleasant arousal—we are not motivated to reduce it How to reduce dissonance? (I think exercise is important but I don’t exercise) Responses: – Change Behaviour- start exercising – Add consistent cognitions- as soon as exams are over I will start working out – Minimize importance of inconsistency- exercise is over-rated, people die while they are jogging – Change attitude- exercising isn’t that important Counter-attitudinal Behaviour- Festinger turning knobs task, $1 interesting – inconsistent with one's attitude – produces dissonance it freely chosen Effort Justification- if we sacrifice for something, we want to believe that it was worth it - if we do something inconsistent with our beliefs, we cant change our behaviour so we change our attitudes (relationship for 4 years, been together for so long, abusive, initiation in hs) Persuasion- 3 aspects of persuasion process – Communicator- credible (expertise, trustworthiness, fit to message), social attractiveness – Message- weak/strong (convincing)11, emotion vs logic, funny – Audience- self-monitoring (adapt to blend into the environment), self-esteem (linear curve, high+low= hard to persuade, moderate levels=most persuadable), age, gender, interest, time of day Central vs Peripheral route to persuasion – motivation means its important to you – best computer for your $$, highly motivated so you think centrally – I like macs, they look cool, good advertisements, peripheral – ability- distracted + cognitive resources Central Peripheral - thinking hard about a message, strength of the - not thinking about the arguments, thinking about arguments the credibility and attractiveness of the - more cognitive effort, energy, certain level ofcommunicator (buy coke because Beyonce is ability (intelligence), motivation, logical, spoke person) systematically - influence by association - longer lasting attitudes that are resistant to - when its not important you think peripherally change (need ketchup, get Heinz) - predict future behaviour - no ability to understand
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