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Chapter 11

Psych 1000 Chapter 11 Summary

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Course Code
Psychology 1000

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Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion Motivation: internal process that activate, guide and maintain behaviour over time (what drives our behaviour?) Motivation Theory- innate tendencies (bird fly south, no thinking involved, this is their nature, aggression has been researched) Drive Theory- biological needs create drive that “pushes” behaviour to reduce drive (homeostasis/equilibrium, cant explain starvation) Expectancy Theory- behaviour is “pulled” by expectations of rewards/incentives (what keeps you in school? Pulled by incentives associated with education) Motivation= expectancy x incentive value (want to be a doctor) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs- (Deficiency Needs and Growth Needs, starving artist?) Hunger and Eating Regulating Eating- Internal/Physiological Processes/Mechanisms – stomach pangs(hunger)/distention(full) – glucose levels (sugar used by the body for energy, hungry= dip and spike in glucose) – peptides (CCK)- when food reaches our small intestine, CCK is released into the bloodstream and signals us to slow down/stop eating – hormones (leptin)-decreases appetite more long term, doesn’t make us feel full, gain weight=more leptin, less hungry, lose weight=less leptin, more hungry – nutritional content of the food- more nutrients=more full – environmental factors- can create a disconnect from our body's messages and eating, eat when bored Obesity – BMI>30, overweight= BMI>25-30, 25% are obese, 50% are overweight Factors in Obesity (hunger+eating?) – associating eating with certain contexts (watching TV, studying, eat when not hungry) – stress eating (upset “heres a cookie” from parents, comfort foods with soothingness) – food related cues (sight/smell) – generic predisposition (metabolism)- twin/adoption studies, strong genetic component More muscle= higher metabolism Eating Disorders – Anorexia Nervosa- starve themselves - <85% what is expected for age/height - report feeling fat, even when very thin – Bulimia- bingeing and purging - diet-binge-purge disorder - vomits, misuses laxatives, exercises, or fasts to get rid of calories - weight either normal or close to it (can be higher/lower) – Continuum: healthy eating --> disordered eating-->=eating disorders 2 Problems with dieting - our body likes to stay the way it is Prevalence: Restriction Disorders – 90% females, 10% males – Age of Onset:Anorexia: 14-18 Bulimia: 15-21 – .5%-1% develop Anorexia – 2-4% develop Bulimia (10% of University Students) Consequences – irregular heartbeat, cardiac arrest, death – disruption of menstrual cycle (not enough body fat/weight to support) – permanent loss of bone mass – tooth decay, ruptured esophagus, gastric ills Eating Disorders Factors: PsychologicalApproach Cognitive- maladaptive beliefs (food is the enemy) - disordered body perceptions (think they are heavier than they actually are) Personality- Anorexia- perfectionist, high-achievers, high expectations from family - often feel powerless, need for control
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