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Chapter 16

Psychology 1000 Chapter 16: PSYCH 16 Review

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 16 Review 1 History & Diagnosis: What is the current definition of Abnormal Behavior? Behavior that’s personally distressing, dysfunctional, and/or so culturally deviant that other people judge it as inappropriate or maladaptive What are the 3 D’s of abnormal behavior? Distress: Feeling anxiety, depression, etc – especially if the person has no control over the reactions- Not necessary (or sufficient), though Dysfunction: Interferes with person’s life or others’ (society) e.g. Depression  interferes with daily life (work, experiencing satisfying relationships) Deviance: Violates societal norms – especially if it cannot be attributed to environmental causes (stressors) Back in history, under Demonological models, what was the treatment of choice? Cut a hole (or holes) in their head to release the demon What is symptoms accompany general paresis? What disease causes this? Brain degeneration- syphilis Briefly outline the basic idea of the Vulnerability-Stress Model. Vulnerability: Biological, personality, environmental or cultural factors increase or decrease odds of developing a psychological disorder, given sufficient stress- Genotype; hormones; neurotransmitters; self-esteem; optimism; poverty; etc… Stressor: Combines with vulnerability to trigger disorder The DSM-5 uses both Categorical and Dimensional approaches in diagnosing mental illness. What do each of these terms mean? Categorical systems: Use detailed, specific “checklists” of behavioral criteria to make a diagnosis Problem with categorical-only: a. So specific many don’t fit neatly into 1 categ. b. 2 people with same diagnosis share only some symptoms, making them appear different c. Doesn’t capture severity Dimensional approach: Relevant behaviors rated along a severity scale Views psychological disorders as different from “normal” by degree, rather than being different in kind e.g. OCD is not something totally different, but rather a maladaptive level of normal personality factor Conscientiousness Scale ratings better reflect each patient’s individual nature, and may help in devising an effective treatment Which of these approaches is new (compared to previous editions)? Dimensional What is the difference between the legal terms Competency and Insanity? Competency: state of mind at the trial- Can’t stand trial until they can “understand” it Insanity: state of mind during the crime Chapter 16 Review 2 What is the difference between the Incidence and the Prevalence of an illness? Incidence: Number of new cases that arise during a given time period Prevalence: Total number of people who have a disorder during a given time period- Includes both new and pre-existing cases Anxiety Disorders: What are the 4 broad classes of symptoms of Anxiety Disorders? Examples? What is the definition of a Phobia? How is it different than just “normal” fear? Strong, irrational fear of certain objects or situations- Most realize fears are disproportional to the danger, but feel helpless to deal with them- Instead, avoid the phobic situation or object Briefly define Agoraphobia, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Specific Phobia. Agoraphobia- fear of open public places Social Anxiety disorder- Excessive fear of situations where the person might be evaluated and possibly embarrassed Specific Phobia- snakes, spiders, enclosed spaces What symptoms define Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ignoring the 6 month requisite)? Chronic state of diffuse “free-floating” anxiety not attached to a specific situation or object- Lasts months, with symptoms continually present- Jittery, tense, on edge, Expect something bad to happen (but don’t know what), hard to concentrate, Chronic mild emergency physiological reaction (i.e. upset stomach, diarrhea, etc…) Briefly outline the common symptoms of Panic Disorder. Is there a specific object or event that triggers the panic attack? Sudden, unpredictable and highly intense anxiety- Not uncommon to think you’re dying- Often occur completely out of the blue- Many later develop agoraphobia because they fear an attack in public Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder an anxiety disorder in the DSM-5? No Chapter 16 Review 3 What is the difference between an obsession and a compulsion? Obsessions: Repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses that invade consciousness. Often abhorrent to the person, but are difficult to dismiss or control Compulsions: Repetitive behavioral responses to obsessions- May involve nearly endless repetition- Function to reduce obsession-based anxiety- Failure  extreme anxiety (even panic attack) - Avoid anxiety, so negative reinforcement of behavior Is there evidence that genes play a role in vulnerability to anxiety disorders? 44-61% genetically influenced- identical twin concordance is 40% and fraternal is 4% How is amygdala functioning different in those with phobias? Over-reactive Which neurotransmitter is abnormally low in individuals with panic disorder? GABA Which sex, women or men, are more likely to develop anxiety disorders? Women How does the concept of biological preparedness explain which specific phobias are most common? Evolution may have evolved for us to develop conditioned fears for some stimuli more easily- Snakes, spiders > guns Briefly outline Freud’s explanation of Neurotic Anxiety. Neurotic anxiety when unacceptable impulses threaten to overwhelm ego’s defenses. So, ego resorts to Defense Mechanisms, which result in anxiety disorders e.g. Panic Disorders = Displacement of neurotic anxiety onto symbolic object or situation Freud’s explanation- Hans’ fear of being bitten by horse- unresolved Oedipus complex. Wants to kill father, sexual desire for mother. Now fears the powerful, strong horse which represents his father, and fears being bitten (which is really a fear of being castrated) by his father if he were to act on his sexual desire for his mother. Similarly, OCD’s obsessions symbolically relate to (but are less awful than) unconsc. impulses. Compulsions “take back” or “undo” the urge- Obsession about dirt = “dirty” sexual urges; hand-washing helps deal with the impulse According to Cognitive theories, what causes anxiety? Cognitive Theories: Emphasize maladaptive thought patterns and beliefs in anxiety disorders e.g. anxious patients Catasrophize- Feel powerless, magnify demands into major threats, expect the worst- e.g. social phobic believe: High likelihood of embarrassing themselves in social situations- Consequences of this would be high What is catastophization? View a situation as far worse than it actually is According to Behavioral theories, which conditioning process is often involved in learning a specific phobia? What process maintains it? Classical conditioning- traumatic fall starts fear of heights- Also through observation Operant conditioning takes over and negatively reinforces Chapter 16 Review 4 What does it mean when we say that some phobias are “culture-bound”? They only occur in certain places: Koro – SE Asian anxiety that one’s penis is going to retract into ones abdomen and kill him Taijin Kyofushu – Japanese fear of offending others by emitting offensive odours, blushing, staring, having a blemish or improper facial expression Windigo – Native American fear of being possessed by monsters that will turn the person into a homicidal cannibal Eating Disorders What is the difference between Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa? Anorexia Nervosa- intense fear of being fat and severely restrict their food intake to the point of self-starvation Bulimia Nervosa- concerned with becoming fat and binge and purge with vomiting or laxatives Which eating disorder is associated with perfectionism? With parents who are disapproving, and set extremely high standards? Anorexia With depression, anxiety, low impulse control, and a lack of stable personal identity or self-sufficiency? Bulimia Is there evidence that genes play a role in vulnerability to eating disorders? Both disorders exhibit high levels of serotonin which could be biological or could be a reaction to the problem. Are cultural beauty norms implicated in causing eating disorders in North America? Yes What is the difference between Major Depression and Dysthymia? Major depression- person is unable to function effectively Dysthymia- less intense but is more long-lasting- over years What are the 4 broad classes of symptoms for Depression?  What does the term “Negative Mood State” encompass? Emotional symptom- Sadness, misery, loneliness, lose capacity to experience pleasure, hobbies and even biological pleasures Emotional and Cognitive symptoms are commonly acknowledged, but what are some of the common somatic symptoms of depression? See picture. Chapter 16 Review 5 In which cases do we expect weight loss? Weight gain? Loss in major depression, gain in mild depression Briefly describe bipolar disorder? Patient experiences depression, but with an alternate (brief) period of mania What is a “manic state”? Essentially opposite of depression- Euphoric mood, grandiose thoughts (“I can do anything!”), hyperactive, rapid talking…Still sleepless, but now super-energetic Is there evidence that genes play a role in vulnerability to mood disorders? 67% identical tin concordance, 15% fraternal- even bigger difference for bipolar disorder Adoption- 8x more likely to have a biological relative with depression than an adoptive one Genes play a role but it still needs to be triggered What behaviors and personality characteristics are related to the Behavioral Activation System? The Behavioral Inhibition System? Behavioral Activation System: reward-oriented; anticipation of pleasure, related to Extraversion Behavioral Inhibition System: avoids pain; involved in fear & anxiety, related to Neuroticism What pattern of BAS and BIS activation is associated with depression? With the manic state in bipolar disorder? Depression= low BAS, high BIS Anxiety= high BAS, low BIS Which 3 neurotransmitters are abnormally low in individuals with depression (and abnormally high when in the manic state of bipolar disorder)? Norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin Is there a sex difference in vulnerability to depression? to bipolar disorder? Women are 2x more likely to suffer from depression, no difference from bipolar disorder How did Freud claim that early stresses affect later personality? Grieving and rage become part of one’s personality How does this affect how a person responds to later, similar stressors? Later loss reactivates original loss- current stressor and past unresolved one According to Humanism, how should one treat mood disorders? Change how we define self-worth- not in terms of achievement Cognitive theories: Beck’s Depressive Cognitive Triad includes negative thoughts about what? Negative thoughts about self, world and future- Focus on
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