Chapter 16 Review 1
History & Diagnosis: What is the current definition of Abnormal Behavior?
Behavior that’s personally distressing, dysfunctional, and/or so culturally deviant that other people judge it as
inappropriate or maladaptive
What are the 3 D’s of abnormal behavior?
Distress: Feeling anxiety, depression, etc – especially if the person has no control over the reactions- Not necessary (or
Dysfunction: Interferes with person’s life or others’ (society) e.g. Depression interferes with daily life (work,
experiencing satisfying relationships)
Deviance: Violates societal norms – especially if it cannot be attributed to environmental causes (stressors)
Back in history, under Demonological models, what was the treatment of choice?
Cut a hole (or holes) in their head to release the demon
What is symptoms accompany general paresis? What disease causes this?
Brain degeneration- syphilis
Briefly outline the basic idea of the Vulnerability-Stress Model.
Vulnerability: Biological, personality, environmental or cultural factors increase or decrease odds of developing a
psychological disorder, given sufficient stress- Genotype; hormones; neurotransmitters; self-esteem; optimism; poverty;
Stressor: Combines with vulnerability to trigger disorder
The DSM-5 uses both Categorical and Dimensional approaches in diagnosing mental illness. What do each of these
Categorical systems: Use detailed, specific “checklists” of behavioral criteria to make a diagnosis
Problem with categorical-only:
a. So specific many don’t fit neatly into 1 categ.
b. 2 people with same diagnosis share only some symptoms, making them appear different
c. Doesn’t capture severity
Dimensional approach: Relevant behaviors rated along a severity scale
Views psychological disorders as different from “normal” by degree, rather than being different in kind e.g. OCD is not
something totally different, but rather a maladaptive level of normal personality factor Conscientiousness
Scale ratings better reflect each patient’s individual nature, and may help in devising an effective treatment
Which of these approaches is new (compared to previous editions)?
What is the difference between the legal terms Competency and Insanity?
Competency: state of mind at the trial- Can’t stand trial until they can “understand” it
Insanity: state of mind during the crime Chapter 16 Review 2
What is the difference between the Incidence and the Prevalence of an illness?
Incidence: Number of new cases that arise during a given time period
Prevalence: Total number of people who have a disorder during a given time period- Includes both new and pre-existing
Anxiety Disorders: What are the 4 broad classes of symptoms of Anxiety Disorders? Examples?
What is the definition of a Phobia? How is it different than just “normal” fear?
Strong, irrational fear of certain objects or situations- Most realize fears are disproportional to the danger, but feel helpless
to deal with them- Instead, avoid the phobic situation or object
Briefly define Agoraphobia, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Specific Phobia.
Agoraphobia- fear of open public places
Social Anxiety disorder- Excessive fear of situations where the person might be evaluated and possibly embarrassed
Specific Phobia- snakes, spiders, enclosed spaces
What symptoms define Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ignoring the 6 month requisite)?
Chronic state of diffuse “free-floating” anxiety not attached to a specific situation or object- Lasts months, with symptoms
continually present- Jittery, tense, on edge, Expect something bad to happen (but don’t know what), hard to concentrate,
Chronic mild emergency physiological reaction (i.e. upset stomach, diarrhea, etc…)
Briefly outline the common symptoms of Panic Disorder. Is there a specific object or event that triggers the panic
Sudden, unpredictable and highly intense anxiety- Not uncommon to think you’re dying- Often occur completely out of
the blue- Many later develop agoraphobia because they fear an attack in public
Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder an anxiety disorder in the DSM-5?
No Chapter 16 Review 3
What is the difference between an obsession and a compulsion?
Obsessions: Repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses that invade consciousness. Often abhorrent to the
person, but are difficult to dismiss or control
Compulsions: Repetitive behavioral responses to obsessions- May involve nearly endless repetition- Function to reduce
obsession-based anxiety- Failure extreme anxiety (even panic attack) - Avoid anxiety, so negative reinforcement of
Is there evidence that genes play a role in vulnerability to anxiety disorders?
44-61% genetically influenced- identical twin concordance is 40% and fraternal is 4%
How is amygdala functioning different in those with phobias?
Which neurotransmitter is abnormally low in individuals with panic disorder?
Which sex, women or men, are more likely to develop anxiety disorders?
How does the concept of biological preparedness explain which specific phobias are most common?
Evolution may have evolved for us to develop conditioned fears for some stimuli more easily- Snakes, spiders > guns
Briefly outline Freud’s explanation of Neurotic Anxiety.
Neurotic anxiety when unacceptable impulses threaten to overwhelm ego’s defenses. So, ego resorts to Defense
Mechanisms, which result in anxiety disorders e.g. Panic Disorders = Displacement of neurotic anxiety onto symbolic
object or situation
Freud’s explanation- Hans’ fear of being bitten by horse- unresolved Oedipus complex. Wants to kill father, sexual desire
for mother. Now fears the powerful, strong horse which represents his father, and fears being bitten (which is really a fear
of being castrated) by his father if he were to act on his sexual desire for his mother.
Similarly, OCD’s obsessions symbolically relate to (but are less awful than) unconsc. impulses. Compulsions “take back”
or “undo” the urge- Obsession about dirt = “dirty” sexual urges; hand-washing helps deal with the impulse
According to Cognitive theories, what causes anxiety?
Cognitive Theories: Emphasize maladaptive thought patterns and beliefs in anxiety disorders e.g. anxious patients
Catasrophize- Feel powerless, magnify demands into major threats, expect the worst- e.g. social phobic believe: High
likelihood of embarrassing themselves in social situations- Consequences of this would be high
What is catastophization?
View a situation as far worse than it actually is
According to Behavioral theories, which conditioning process is often involved in learning a specific phobia? What
process maintains it?
Classical conditioning- traumatic fall starts fear of heights- Also through observation
Operant conditioning takes over and negatively reinforces Chapter 16 Review 4
What does it mean when we say that some phobias are “culture-bound”?
They only occur in certain places:
Koro – SE Asian anxiety that one’s penis is going to retract into ones abdomen and kill him
Taijin Kyofushu – Japanese fear of offending others by emitting offensive odours, blushing, staring, having a blemish or
improper facial expression
Windigo – Native American fear of being possessed by monsters that will turn the person into a homicidal cannibal
What is the difference between Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa?
Anorexia Nervosa- intense fear of being fat and severely restrict their food intake to the point of self-starvation
Bulimia Nervosa- concerned with becoming fat and binge and purge with vomiting or laxatives
Which eating disorder is associated with perfectionism? With parents who are disapproving, and set extremely
With depression, anxiety, low impulse control, and a lack of stable personal identity or self-sufficiency?
Is there evidence that genes play a role in vulnerability to eating disorders?
Both disorders exhibit high levels of serotonin which could be biological or could be a reaction to the problem.
Are cultural beauty norms implicated in causing eating disorders in North America?
What is the difference between Major Depression and
Major depression- person is unable to function effectively
Dysthymia- less intense but is more long-lasting- over
What are the 4 broad classes of symptoms for
What does the term “Negative Mood State” encompass?
Emotional symptom- Sadness, misery, loneliness, lose capacity to experience pleasure, hobbies and even biological
Emotional and Cognitive symptoms are commonly acknowledged, but what are some of the common somatic
symptoms of depression?
See picture. Chapter 16 Review 5
In which cases do we expect weight loss? Weight gain?
Loss in major depression, gain in mild depression
Briefly describe bipolar disorder?
Patient experiences depression, but with an alternate (brief) period of mania
What is a “manic state”?
Essentially opposite of depression- Euphoric mood, grandiose thoughts (“I can do anything!”), hyperactive, rapid
talking…Still sleepless, but now super-energetic
Is there evidence that genes play a role in vulnerability to mood disorders?
67% identical tin concordance, 15% fraternal- even bigger difference for bipolar disorder
Adoption- 8x more likely to have a biological relative with depression than an adoptive one
Genes play a role but it still needs to be triggered
What behaviors and personality characteristics are related to the Behavioral Activation System? The Behavioral
Behavioral Activation System: reward-oriented; anticipation of pleasure, related to Extraversion
Behavioral Inhibition System: avoids pain; involved in fear & anxiety, related to Neuroticism
What pattern of BAS and BIS activation is associated with depression? With the manic state in bipolar disorder?
Depression= low BAS, high BIS
Anxiety= high BAS, low BIS
Which 3 neurotransmitters are abnormally low in individuals with depression (and abnormally high when in the
manic state of bipolar disorder)?
Norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin
Is there a sex difference in vulnerability to depression? to bipolar disorder?
Women are 2x more likely to suffer from depression, no difference from bipolar disorder
How did Freud claim that early stresses affect later personality?
Grieving and rage become part of one’s personality
How does this affect how a person responds to later, similar stressors?
Later loss reactivates original loss- current stressor and past unresolved one
According to Humanism, how should one treat mood disorders?
Change how we define self-worth- not in terms of achievement
Cognitive theories: Beck’s Depressive Cognitive Triad includes negative
thoughts about what?
Negative thoughts about self, world and future- Focus on