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Chapter 1

Psychology - The Science of Psychology Chapter 1 .doc
Psychology - The Science of Psychology Chapter 1 .doc

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology16092012 002200What is PsychologyIs the scientific study of behavior and the mind Behaviorrefers to actions and responses that we can directly observe Mindrefers to internal states and processes such as thoughts and feelingsPsychology GoalsFour Central Goals i To describe how people and other animals behave ii To explain and understand the causes of these behaviors iii To predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions iv To influence or control behavior through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare Basic and Applied ScienceBasic Researchthe quest for knowledge purely for its own sake Applied Researchdesigned to solve specific practical problems Examples Two forms of spatial imagery Neuroimaging evidence Increasing seat belt use on a college campus An evaluation of two prompting procedures PsychologySome HistoryWilhelm Wundt 18321920oEstablished the first experimental psychology lab oAlong with Edward Titchener developed the Structuralism approach StructuralismThe mind should be studied by breaking it down into its basic components Used introspection to study sensations Describe inner experiencesStructuralism gave way to FunctionalismFocuses on the functions of consciousness rather than its structureFunctionalism Our hands Why do we have hands How do they help us Ask similar questions about our mental processes and behavioursPsychodynamic PerspectivePsychodynamic Perspectivesearches for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality Emphasizing the role of unconscious processesPsychoanalysisthe analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forcesThe Behavioral Perspective Focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions Our environment shapes human nature John Locke says its like tabula rasa or blank stateKey Behavioristso Ivan Pavlov
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