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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Behaviour in a Social Context

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 13 Behaviour in a Social Context Social Thinking And Perception Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behaviour What types of information lead us - Attribution: judgments about the causes of our own and to form a situational other people’s behaviour and outcomes rather than a - Personal (Internal) Attributions: infer that peoples’ personal attribution? behaviour is caused by their characteristics (I insulted you because you are a rude person) - Situational (external) Attributions: aspects of the situation Describe the cause a behaviour (I was provoked into insulting you) fundamental - Three types of information determine the attribution we attribution error and make: Consistency, distinctiveness and consensus the self-serving bias. How do cultural - Attribution Biases norms affect these o Fundamental Attribution Error: underestimate the attributional impact of the situation and overestimate the role of tendencies? personal factors when explaining other people’s behaviour o We judge others in situations, but not ourselves because in a sense we are not “watching ourselves” and are a part of a background where everyone else is a figure that stands out from the background o Self-serving bias: making relatively more personal attributions for successes and more situational attributions for failures - Cultural Attribution o We attribute other people’s behaviour to personal factors is because of the Westernized emphasis on individualism o Indian students made more situational attributions than those in America o Holistic thinking and beliefs about causality seems to account for information-seeking differences between cultures as well as among individuals within each culture Why do primacy Forming and Maintaining Impressions effects occur in impression - Primacy Vs. Recency: formation? How can o Primacy effect: tendency to attain more importance to they be reduced? the initial information that we learn about a person o We tend to be most alert to information we receive first o Recency Effect: giving greater weight to the most recent information o Primacy effect decreases and recency effect increases How do mental sets shape the way we - Mental Sets and Schemas perceive people? o Schemas – mental frameworks that help us organize How do stereotypes and interpret information create mental sets? o By saying a person is has these characteristics we activate a set of concepts and expectations Explain how our o Stereotype: generalized belief about a group or a incorrect category of people expectations can become self- - Self-Fulfilling Prophecies fulfilling o Occur usually without conscious awareness, when people act a certain way so expected behaviours can show up Attitudes and Attitude Change Why did LaPiere’s - Attitude: positive or negative evaluate reaction toward a study raise doubts stimulus, such as a person, action, object, or concept about attitude- - In the study where a LaPiere followed a Chinese couple behaviour shopping and eating at different places, it was determined consistency? that the survey results could accurate because they weren’t the ones who met the served and met the Chinese couple - Theory of Planned Behaviour – intention to engage in a behaviour in under our control Discuss three broad - Attitudes affect our behaviour more strongly when other conditions under people support our attitudes which attitudes best - Attitudes have a greater influence on behaviour when we predict behaviour are aware of them and when they are strongly held (we do it from our own personal knowledge and not someone else’s) - General attitudes are better at predicting general classes of What causes behaviour and specific attitudes are better at predicting cognitive specific behaviours dissonance, and how can it produce - Does Our Behaviour Influence Our Attitudes? attitude change? o Theory of Cognitive Dissonance – people strive for consistency in their cognitions (when one contradicts the other then cognitive dissonance forms and we try to decrease it) o Counterattitudeinal behaviour – behaviour that is inconsistent with our attitude According to self- o Self-perception theory – we make inferences about perception theory, our own attitudes in much the same way, by observing why does counter- how we behave attitudinal behaviour o We tend to change our attitudes to be more consistent produce attitude with the way we just behaved change? o Study with the 1$ and 20$ reward – people with 1$ lied better because there dissonance was reduced while What evidence the 20$ had an external justification to lie that affected supports dissonance there self-worth theory? What o For 1$ people the external justification was not there evidence favors self- so they logically concluded that deep down they were perception theory? enjoyed the experiment a little Identify - Persuasion communicator and o Communicator credibility – how believable the message communicator is; key to effective persuasion characteristics that o Credibility has two major components: Expertise and increase trust worthiness persuasiveness o Central Route to Persuasion – occurs when people think carefully about the message and are influenced Describe the central because they find the arguments compelling and peripheral o Peripheral Route to Persuasion – Occurs when routes to persuasion. people do not scrutinize the message but are influenced For whom is the mostly by other factors, such as a speakers central route more attractiveness or a messages emotional appeal likely to be effective? Social Influence The Mere Presence of Others Under what conditions does the - Mere physical presence of another person increases our mere presence of arousal other people - As arousal increases, we become more likely to perform enhance or impair what behaviour happens to be our dominant response performance? (most typical response) to that specific situation Why? - Social Facilitation – when we first try a complex task our dominant response make errors and doing it in front of others impairs it more. After the complex task is learned or it was a simple task than our dominant response is to make no errors and perform easily in front of others How do norms and Social Norms: The Rules of the Game roles guide our behaviour? - Social Norms – shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave and they are the cement that binds social systems together - Social Role – set of norms that characterizes how people in a given social position out to behave - Norms and roles can influence behaviour so strongly that Explain the different they compel a person to act uncharacteristically (students between as guards and prisoners) informational and - Culture and Norm Formation normative social influence Conformity and Obedience - Informational Social Influence – we follow the opinions Under what or behaviour of other people because we believe they have conditions is the accurate knowledge and what they are doing is “right” minority most likely - Normative Social Influence – conform to obtain rewards to influence the that come from being accepted by other people, while at majority? the same time avoiding their rejection - Factors that Affect Conformity o Group size – conformity increased as group size increased but not after 5 or 6 people o Presence of a dissenter – someone who disagrees with everyone serves as a model for remaining independent Describe Milgram’s from the group obedience - Minority influence is strongest when it maintains a highly experiment. consistent position over time (only when consistent and has an open mind in influence) - Obedience to an authority figure is inherently neither - Factors that Influence Destructive Obedience o Remoteness of the Victim – obedience was greater when the learner was out of sight o Closeness and Legitimacy of the authority figure – obedience was highest when the authority figure was close and perceived as legitimate o Cog in a wheel – when another person (actually part of experiment) flipped the shock switch and real participants had to perform only another aspect of the task o Personal Characteristics – differences in people like religion or education were weak or non-existent Research Foundations - The Dilemma of Obedience: When Conscience Confronts Malevolent Authority o Stanley Milgram – conducted the experiments about giving the electric shocks to a certain man by pressuring the person in the control room o Obedience was carried out till the end even though the man on the other room was screaming and yelling to stop - Detecting and Resisting Compliance Techniques Identify four o Norm of reciprocity – the expectation that when common compliance others treat us well, we should respond in kind techniques and o Door-in-the-face technique – a persuader makes a explain how they large request, expecting you to reject it and then work presents a smaller request o Foot-in-the-door technique – a persuader gets you to comply with a small request first and later presents a larger request o Lowballing – a persuader gets you to commit to some action and then before you actually perform the behaviour, he or she increases the “cost” of that same behaviour Crowd Behaviour and Deindividuation Describe deindividuation and - Deindividuation – loss of individuality that leads to how conditions in disinhibited behaviour the Stanford Prison - Example: People encouraging other people to jump off Study may have buildings even though they wouldn’t do it themselves fostered it - The Prison Study: All guards were called by the same name, dressed up the same and wore sunglasses. The prisoner guards became anti-social and reducing anonymity may be the most basic approach to counteracting deindividuation Group Influences on Performance and Decision Making - Social Loafing – tendency for people to expend less individual effort when working in a group than when What is social working alone loading and when is - Most likely to occur: it most likely to o People believe that individual performance within the occur? group is not being monitored o The task (goal) has less value or meaning to the person o The group is less important to the person o The task is simple and the person’s input is redundant with that of other group members Identify two causes - Social Compensation – work hard in a group than alone if of group they expect that their colleagues either don’t have enough polarization ability or will slack off - Group Polarization – when a group of like-minded people discusses an issue, whether face to face or through email, the “average” opinion of group members tends to become more extreme. - Example: If you’re in a conservative party, group decision What are some is more conservative causes, symptoms, - Group polarization occurs because of normative social and consequences of influence (doing it to be apart of the group, gain groups groupthink? appr
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