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Chapter 13

CHAPTER 13 personality personality disorders.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

CHAPTER 13: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS March 25 (p.528 - 534) nd  Psychological disorders are the 2leading cause of disability (after heart disease) Historical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders  Depending on time period psychological views were interpreted differently  Ex. Like demons, physical diseases, result of psychological conflict etc. The Demonological View  Belief that abnormal behaviour is caused by supernatural forces Trephination = sharp tool used to chisel a hole in the skull ¶ allowing demons to escape Early Biological Views  Hippocrates suggested abnormal behaviour was b/c of disease rather than demons Psychological Perspectives  Psychodynamic: o Neuroses  person doesn‟t lose contact w/ reality due to unresolved conflict o Psychoses  can‟t deal w/ reality longer & ¶ withdraws from it  Biological: o Learnt behaviours via environmental factors  Cognitive o Emphasizes people‟s thoughts & self perceptions  Humanistic: o Environmental factors frustrate people‟s inherent self-actualization tendencies Vulnerability-stress Model = each and every one of us has some degree of vulnerability to developing a given psychological disorder Vulnerability = biological, personal factor, or environmental predisposition  Appearance of disorder triggered by stress + vulnerability factor Defining & Classifying Psychological Disorders What is “Abnormal”?  Normality is affected by the time and the culture  ¶ abnormality is a social construction  Behaviours tend to be labelled as abnormal if they are: o Distressing to the individual o Dysfunctional to the individual or society o Deviant, according to the society Abnormal Behaviour = behaviour that is personally distressful, personally dysfunctional, and/or so culturally deviant that other ppl judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive Diagnosing Psychological Disorders Reliability = clinicians using the system should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decision  ¶ system should minimize subjective judgements Validity = diagnostic categories should accurately capture the essential features of the various disorders  Categories should allow differentiation of one disorder from another  Overlap of possible diagnoses lowers reliability & validity March 28 (p.534 - 540) Critical Issues in Diagnostic Labelling  Diagnostic label is regarding behaviours, not the individual  People may develop the expected role & outlook of their labelled diagnosis  Also affects moral & self-esteem Competency = a defendant‟s state of mind at the time of a judicial hearing  If too disturbed ¶ not competent to stand trial Insanity = the presumed state of mind of the defendant when the crime was committed  ¶ can be not guilty by „reason of insanity‟  now called „on account of mental disorder‟  Responsibility on defence to proof „insanity‟ Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders = the frequency & intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situation that triggers them & ¶ heavily interferes w/ daily life  Components: 1. Subjective-emotional - feelings of apprehension/tension 2. Cognitive – feeling of inability to cope 3. Physiological – ex. ↑ HR 4. Behavioural Responses – ex. Avoidance of certain situations  Most prevalent of all psychological disorders Phobic Disorder Phobias = strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations  ¶ try to avoid situations involving phobia at all measures Agoraphobia = fear of open & public spaces Social Phobias = excessive fear of situations where they might be evaluated/embarrassed Specific Phobias = es. Dogs, elevators, water etc. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder = a chronic state of diffuse anxiety that is not attached to specific situations of objects  Has physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms Panic Disorder Panic Disorders = occur suddenly & unpredictably, & are much more intense (than GAD)  Can often develop agoraphobia if panic attacks first triggered in public places  Onset: late adolescence / early adulthood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OCD = consists of a cognitive & behavioural component normally Obsessions = repetitive & unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses that invade consciousness, are often abhorrent to the person, & very hard to dismiss/control Compulsions = repetitive behavioural responses that are very hard to resist  Onset: typically 20s Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PTSD = severe anxiety disorder occurring in ppl who have been exposed to traumatic life events  Four Major Symptoms: 1. Anxieties, arousal & stress 2. relives trauma via flashbacks, dreams & fantasy 3. becomes numb to the world & avoids stimuli that remind them of the trauma 4. “survival guilt” Research Foundations: Rape, Trauma, & PTSD  Sexual assaults correlated w/ higher PTSD rates than non sexual assaults  Early onset victims had higher improvement of PTSD symptoms after 3 months March 29 (p. 541 - 546) Causal Factors in Anxiety Disorders  Genetic factors may increase vulnerability (¶ overacting automatic NS, neurotransmitters)  Identical twins have closer scores than fraternal twins on psychological tests  GABA  inhibits Amygdala activity (¶ decreases arousal)  ¶ lack of GABA could cause high anxiety  Thought to be a sex-linked predisposition  women more likely Biological Preparedness = the notion that evolutionary factors have produced an innate readiness to learn certain associations that have had past survival implications Neurotic Anxiety = when unacceptable impulses threaten to overwhelm the ego‟s defences & explode into action  ¶ anxiety disorder determined by how ego uses its defence mechanism  Panic attack – defences not strong enough to control anxiety, but can still hide underlying conflict  Behavioural – anxiety is a learnt response via –ve reinforcement & classical conditioning Culture-Bound Disorders = occur only in certain places  Ex. Kovo – penis retraction Mood (Affective) Disorders Mood Disorders = involve depression and mania Depression  Sad, discouraged, apathetic, & passive  frequent, intense, & enduring Major Depression = unable to function effectively in their lives after a minor setback/loss Dysthymia = type of depression w/ < dramatic effects on personal & job functioning  However is more chronic ¶ long-lasting  Has mood, cognitive, motivational, & physical symptoms  Even physical pleasures (eating, sex) can lose their appeal April 3 (p.546 - 558) Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder = depression alternates with periods of mania (= a state of highly excited mood and behaviour)  When manic  speech is often rapid, sleep is sometimes avoided, & negative consequences aren‟t recognized Prevalence and Course of Mood Disorders  Depression can occur in all age ranges  More likely to suffer depression if born after 1960  Women 2x as likely to suffer unipolar depression – possibly due to cultural gender expectations  People who suffer major depression either: o Never have another depression episode o Have recurring depression episodes o Do not recover from original depression episode ¶ chronically depressed Causal Factors in Mood Disorders  Depression linked to genetic (twin/adoption studies) & neurochemical factors  Possibly due to under activity of neurotransmitters in charge of motivation (norepinephrine, dopamine, & serotonin)  Manic disorders may result from overproduction of these same neurotransm
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