Textbook Notes (369,082)
Canada (162,376)
Psychology (4,934)
Psychology 1000 (1,640)
Dr.Mike (707)
Chapter

17 - Treatment of Psychological Disorders.docx

9 Pages
86 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 9 pages of the document.
Description
Chapter 17 T reatment of Psychologica l Disorders The Helping Relationship  Counselling and clinical psychologists have Ph.D. in Philosophy or Psy.D in psychology  Medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy and biomedical treatments (drug therapy)  Master degrees with practical training  Psychiatric social workers work in community agencies  Abuse, marriage, family, pastoral (spiritual) counsellors  Therapy o Goal is to change maladaptive self-defeating thoughts, feelings, behaviours to live happier, better  Socially acceptable step by step process – gradual affair o Psychoanalytic (understand), behavioural (do), cognitive-behavioural (think), humanistic (feel) o Emotional defusing – reduce/eliminate fear Psychodynamic Therapies Psychoanalysis  Help clients achieve insight (conscious awareness of problems) for anxiety (not schizo) and younger people o Therapeutic relationship + therapy technique  therapeutic outcome  Awareness permits to adjust behaviour to current life situations rather than to repeat old maladaptive routines  Psychic energy that controls unconscious conflict is released and redirected to more adaptive ways of living Free Association  Repeat verbally without censorship any thoughts, feelings, images that entered awareness  Provide clues concerning important issues or themes Dream Interpretation  Dreams express impulses, fantasies, wishes defences keep in unconscious during waking hours (ego out of way)  Usually disguise threatening material to protect dreamer from anxiety Resistance  Defenses that slow down therapy e.g. difficulty in free-associating (avoid topics), come late or forget appointment  Sign of anxiety-arousing sensitive material being approached Transference  Client responds with open repressed feelings, maladaptive behaviour to analyst like important figure from past  Positive transference – intense affection, dependency or love to analyst  Negative transference – irrational expressions of anger, hatred, disappointment  Until transference are resolved, no full resolution of current problem Interpretation  Confronts clients with insight or meaning of behaviour that they have not admitted into consciousness Brief Psychodynamic Therapies  Classical psychoanalysis is expensive and time consuming and degree of improvement varies  Neo Freudian and ego analysis – brief interpretation of insight on influences of past and behaviour o Goal is to help client deal with problem rather than rebuild client’s personality  Focus on current situation than past  Teach interpersonal and emotion-control skills  Interpersonal Therapy: less than 20 sessions that focus on client’s current interpersonal problems o Marital conflict, loss/change of relationship, enhance social skills to initiate or maintain relationships o More effective for depression 2 Humanistic psychotherapies  Human capable of consciously controlling their actions and taking responsibility for their choices and behaviour  Everyone has inner resources for self-healing and personal growth but disorder blocks it  Goal: self-exploration with no barriers (unrealistic or maladaptive standards for self-worth) environment  Aware of present feelings and future instead of past insight of childhood origins Client-Centred Therapy  Carl Roger thought relationship that develops between client and therapist and environment is important o Clients feel accepted, understood, free to explore basic attitudes, feelings without fear of being judged o Increase self-acceptance, self-awareness, self-reliance, comfort with other relationships, improved life o People are good and move toward ideal self but blocked from realizing full potential  Unconditioned Positive Regard: therapists show clients that they genuinely care about and accept them o Sense of trust is communicated in therapist’s refusal to offer advice or guidance  Empathy: willingness and ability to view the world through the client’s eyes o Reflecting back to client by rephrasing something client had said to capture meaning and emotion  Genuineness: consistent feelings and behaviour o Express displeasure with behaviour but also show acceptance with choice of action Gestalt Therapy  We concentrate on whole experience and ignore important background (blocked feelings, wishes, thoughts)  Goal is to bring background back to awareness  Carried out in groups  Developed imaginative techniques to help get in touch with their inner selves such as role play o Empty-chair technique –imagine mother sitting in the chair and carry a conversation  Powerful feelings and make clients aware of unresolved issues  Roger’s – research to identify factors that contribute to therapeutic success  Perl’s – antiscientific attitude that prevented research  Greenberg and Malcolm o Empty-chair technique where clients relisten to the conversation o Resolved clients experienced more emotion Cognitive Therapies  Irrational and self-defeating thought patterns now and not past and change cognitions that underlie problems  Habitual thought patterns become automatic and become less aware of them and accept them as reality  Goal: identify beliefs, ideas, self-statements that trigger maladaptive emotions, behaviours in order to change it Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy  A – activating event that seems to trigger emotion  B – belief system that underlies how a person appraises event activated by A  C – emotional and behavioural consequences of that appraisal produced by B  D – key to changing maladaptive emotions and behaviours is disputing/challenging belief system of B  Introduce common irrational ideas and train them to replace with rational thoughts and demands  Continue asking questions to get at belief and be aware of them Beck’s Cognitive Therapy  Point out errors of thinking and logic of emotional disturbance and reprogram automatic thought patterns  Depression – realize their thoughts and not the situation cause their maladaptive emotional reaction  Realization sets stage for identifying and changing  Self-Instructional Training: influential in treatments related to stress and coping 3 Behaviour Therapies  Behaviour disorders are learned and unlearned in the same ways normal behaviour are Classical Conditioning Treatments Exposure: An Extinction Approach  Exposure to feared CS in absence of UCS of anxiety  Flooding – exposed to real life stimuli  Impolsion theory – imagine scenes involving stimuli Systematic Desensitization: A Counterconditioning Approach  Wolpe view anxiety as a classically conditioned emotional response  Eliminate by counterconditioning (new response (relax muscles) conditioned to anxiety-arousing CS) o Stimulus hierarchy – construct of 10 – 15 fear relating sense arranged in steps from low to high anxiety o Low arousal scenes deconditioned, total anxiety reduced  Can image more anxiety-arousing images without feeing anxious  Vivo desensitization – controlled exposure to hierarchy of real life situation  Systematic desensitization preferred since less anxiety experienced Aversion Therapy  Not reducing anxiety but give up an undesirable UCS by associate it with an unpleasant effect  Often fail to generalize from treatment setting to real world The Neuroscience of Treating Unipolar Depression  Cognitive behaviour theory’s treatment by changing brain function of limbic system, frontal cortex, hippocampus o Low levels of cingulate cortex activity linked to regulation of limbic system  Identify maladaptive thoughts and behaviours and think more rationally  Reduced serotonin transport for those who expressed higher levels of dysfunctional belief  Maladaptive thoughts related to lower levels of serotonin  Talking therapy can alter brain function in much the same way that drug treatments do Virtual Reality as a Therapeutic Technique  Virtual reality that can control environment and condition to create realistic environments, simulate experience  Treat phobias, occupational rehabilitation to PTSD Operant Conditioning Treatments  Behaviour modification using operant conditioning to increase or decrease behaviour o Positive reinforcement, extinction, negative reinforcement or punishment o Observable behaviours  Chronic hospitalized schizophrenics, disturbed children, mentally retarded Positive Reinforcement  Token Economy: help strengthen decreased social, personal care, skills if in long term psychiatric hospitalization  Get tangible reinforcers e.g. food based on tokens to phase out so desired behaviours develops to occur naturally Therapeutic Use of Punishment  Are there alternative, less painful approaches that might be effective? Modelling and Social Skills Training  Social skills training – learn skills by observing and imitating a model who performs a socially skilful behaviour  Effectiveness due to self-efficacy to believe they are capable of performing the desired behaviour 4 “Third-Wave” Cognitive Behavioural Therapies  Cognitive behavioural therapies: rational emotive behaviour, cognitive and modelling and role playing Mindfulness-Based Treatments  Mental state of awareness, focus, openness, acceptance of immediate experience  Nonjudgmental appraisal so in state of mindfulness, difficult thoughts and feelings have much less impact  Cognitive focus nonjudgmentally on sensations than distract oneself that increase ability to tolerate painful stimuli  Meditation technique to develop tranquil state and focus closely on sensations, thoughts, feelings o Reduce physiological arousal, detach cognitive outlook to be emotion-escalating emotional process-free o Prevent relapse by increasing awareness of thoughts and emotions that trigger lapses  Interrupting previous cycle of automatic substance abuse behaviour  Neutral self-blame and thoughts of hopelessness Acceptance and Commitment Therapy  Focus on process of mindfulness as vehicle for change  Just notice, accept and embrace them  Decide what is most important and setting life goals with those values and commit and work towards them Dialectical Behaviour Therapy  Intense treatment developed specifically for the treatment of borderline personality disorder  Chaotic interpersonal relationships, poor emotional control, self-destructive behaviours, low self-esteem  Behavioural techniques help clients learn interpersonal, problem-solving and emotion-control skills  Cognitive approaches help learn more adaptive thinking about the world, relationships and themselves  Psychodynamic element traces history of early deprivation and rejection that crated many problems  Humanistic emphasis acceptance of thoughts, feelings to tolerate unhappiness and negative emotions  Foundation of mindfulness procedures for skills taught in DBT to help accept and tolerate powerful emotions  Goal: be capable of calmly recognizing situations, thoughts, impact and not be overwhelmed or avoiding them Cultural and Gender Issues in Psychotherapy  Europe and North America assume people can express feelings, take personal responsibility to improve themselves  Asian cultures disapprove therapeutic expression since you need to stand up for one’s rights Cultural Factors in Treatment Utilization  Minori
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit