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Psychology 1000 (1,634)
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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Semester
Fall

Description
-­‐ Freud  suspected  that  because  some  of  our  early  sexual  needs  are  punished,  we  learn  to  fear   them  and  become  anxious  when  we  become  aware  of  their  presence o These  anxieties  are  coped  with  through  defense  mechanisms o One  of  the  most  important  is  repression,  which  protects  us  by  keeping  impulses,  feelings,   and  memories  in  the  unconscious  part  of  the  mind o They  remain  there  as  a  source  of  energy,  striving  for  release -­‐ Some  of  Freudns  research  was  contradicted,  and  some  others  were  validated o It  helped  stimulate  the  development  of  new  theories  as  well  as  promote  new  research Current  Developments -­‐ Scientists  working  within  the  biological  perspective  have  identified  brain  mechanisms  that  can   produce  emotional  reactions  of  which  we  are  consciously  unaware -­‐ Cognitive  scientists  have  shown  that  many  aspects  of  information  processing  occur  outside  of   our  awareness Behavioural  Perspective:  The  Power  of  the  Environment -­‐ Focuses  on  the  role  of  the  external  environment  in  shaping  and  governing  our  actions -­‐ Peoplens  behavior  is  jointly  determined  by  learned  habits  from  their  life  experience  or  from   their  immediate  environment Origins  of  the  Behavioural  Perspective th -­‐ Behavioural  perspective  comes  from  a  17 century  school  of  philosophy  known  as  British   empiricism o All  ideas  and  knowledge  are  gained  empirically  (through  the  senses) o Humans  are  a  blank  sheet  of  paper  and  is  differentiated  by  experience Behaviourism -­‐ Behaviourism  is  a  school  of  thought  that  emphasizes  environmental  control  of  behavior   through  learning -­‐ John  B.  Watson  was  against  structuralists,  functionalists,  and  psychoanalysts  and  argued  that   proper  psychology  should  be  based  on  observable  actions -­‐ Structuralists  believe  that  one  is  only  influenced  by  outside  forces  and  not  their  innate   tendencies   -­‐ Behaviourists  do  not  focus  on  whatnƐ▯ŚĂƉƉĞŶŝŶŐ▯ŝŶƐŝĚĞ͕▯ďƵƚ▯ƌĂƚŚĞƌ▯ŽŶ▯ǁŚĂƚ͛Ɛ▯ŚĂƉƉĞŶŝŶŐ▯ outside -­‐ B.F.  Skinner  was  a  famous  behaviourist -­‐ Behaviour  modification  is  possible  by  altering  the  environmental  factors  that  stimulate   behavior Cognitive  Behaviourism -­‐ Cognitive  Behaviourism  is  an  attempt  to  combine  behavioural  and  cognitive  perspectives  to   make  a  more  comprehensive  theory -­‐ This  theory  states  that  the  environment  gives  us  the  knowledge  to  behave  effectively o Eg.  If  we  see  someone  do  something  effective,  we  store  it  in  our  memory  and  use  it  for   later   The  Humanistic  Perspective:  Freedom  and  Self-­‐Actualization -­‐ Humanistic  perspective  emphasizes  a  personns  innate  tendencies  toward  growth  and  to  find   ultimate  meaning  in  existence o It  emphasizes  the  role  of  the  internal  thought  process -­‐ Humanists  believe  that  every  person  strives  toward  self-­‐actualization  Žƌ▯ƌĞĂĐŚŝŶŐ▯ŽŶĞ͛Ɛ▯ personal  potential
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