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Chapter 2

Psychology Chapter 2 Review.docx

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Psychology 1000

Psychology Chapter 2 Review Scientific Inquiry  Identifying a question of interest  Gathering information and formulate hypothesis  Testing hypothesis through experiments and research o Define variables  Analyzing data and drawing tentative conclusions and reporting findings  Building a body of knowledge, such as theories and new hypotheses Two Approaches to Understanding Behavior  Hindsight and step-by-step o Problem with hindsight, multiple reasons can be used in hindsight to explain a possible outcome to any event (hindsight bias) o No way to determine if alternate outcomes are possible or which one is correct o Scientists prefer step by step because they can control variables and predict what will happen o Theory development is strongest test due to  Organization of information in meaningful way  Testable  Predictions made by theory supported by new findings from research  Conforms to Occam’s Razor (simplest explanation is usually the most correct one) Defining and Measuring Variables  Variable, a factor in an experiment that is different from individual to individual, can change and alter the outcome  Operational definitions to define variables, translate abstract variable into something that can be measured  External variables must be controlled  Variety of methods o Self reports  Ask the individual to report on beliefs, feelings, etc  Self reports can be altered due to social desirability bias, the desire to conform to the norm instead of what you really believe  Quesionnaires can counter this  Overt behavior  Observers use a coding system so measurements are reliable  Unobtrusive measures, prevent individual from observing researcher  Archival measures, use research that already exists Methods of Research  Descriptive o How or why an individual behaves in its natural settings o Provide information about variety of behavior and see cause-effect relationships  Case studies o In depth analysis of things, individuals, events or groups  Naturalistic observation o Obersvational study o Researcher observes behavior in natural setting, trying to influence it at all o Does not provide conclusions as to what is seen  Survey o Survey given to a large population  Population is the group of people that are studied  Sample is the small group ch
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