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Chapter 9

Psychology Chapter 9.docx

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Psychology 1000

Psychology Chapter 9 Main Points  Language  Conceptual thinking  Can animals learn language  Problem solving  Heuristics Chapter 9: Language o Properties of language o Syntax  Structuring  Ambiguity  Deep/surface structure o Language learning o Structure of thought o Heuristic processing o Inductive/deductive reasoning  Problem solving Language  Phonemes o Smallest unit of meaning in a language  Morphemes o From phonemes, they are combined to create meaningful pieces of discourse  Stringing together concepts o Anything in English can be conveyed in 850 words and most infants already have this vocabulary  Shows us that most of our advanced vocabulary is inherently useless  Structure o Grammar  Set of rules for how symbols can be combined to create meaningful forms of communication o Syntax  Grammar for a language and tells us how to put the words together in the proper order o Semantics  Meaning of words and sentences o Generality  The symbols can be manipulated to generate an infinite number of messages and have a different meaning for each o Displacement  Be able to communicate about objects that are not currently present  Processing o Bottom up  Processing of individual element and then combines them to form a whole  Small subunits combined to create a larger meaning o Individual phonemes combined to make morphemes and eventually full, cohesive sentences o Top down  Sensory information interpreted in light of existing conditions  Past information allows you to create sense of a situation  I know the sky  Chomsky o Deep structure and surface structure o The real meaning (deep structure) of a sentence can be expressed in several different forms (surface structure)  And all would be perfectly correct  Difficult to understand the deep structure by just looking at the surface structure  Ex. Make me a coffee o Does this mean to bring you coffee or to somehow turn you into a coffee  Language acquisition o Chomsky believes that we are born with a language acquisition device  Contains grammar rules generalized to all languages o Bruner suggested we have a language acquisition support system, that takes factors within a social system when learning a new language into account o Stages of acquisition  Since birth, you start to vocalize  Make noises, try to work out words by making sounds  Respond to motherese, which is the mocking, cutesy tone people use when talking to babies  At 5-8 months, start to recognize parent’s words, usually one word sentences  Under generalize concepts, which doesn’t always work  Makes understanding more difficult  By age of 2, kids can say sentences that contain a verb and a noun  Somewhat proper grammar  Start to look for generalization rules o Brain seems to be hard wired for language  Wild children, able to pick up some aspects of language despite having missed a c
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