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Chapter 11

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Psychology 1000

Psychology Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion Important Points:  Theories of Motivation o Basic theories of motivation  Intrinsic  Doing something for the sake of doing it  Because you find it enjoyable  Extrinsic  Doing something for some sort of gain or reward o Concepts of drive and drive reduction  Drive theory  Psychological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives o Things that motivate an organism in a way to reduce tension o Drives include hunger or thirst o Reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivated behavior o Intrinsic motivation theory  Performing an activity for its own sake o Maslow’s Hierarchy  Heirarchy of needs  Self actualization  Deficiency  Growth o Self determination theory  Fundamental psychological needs  Competence o Human need to master new challenges and skills  Autonomy o Satisfaction when seeing people experience their actions as a result of free choice  Relatedness o Desire to form meaningful bonds with one another  Hunger o Control of hunger  Signals from our body combine and cause people to end their meal  Satisfy signals  CCK is a chemical released in the bloodstream when food arrives in stomach, decreasing eating by attaching to receptors in brain  Leptin also decreases appetite  Periventricular nucleus, cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites that stimulate/reduce appetite o Metabolism  Body’s rate of caloric utilization  2/3 goes toward basal metabolism o Hunger isn’t linked to immediate energy needs o Homeostatic mechanisms prevent you from running low on energy o There is a set point at which body weight or fat mass that homeostatic mechanisms will return you to original weight if too much or too little is eaten o Brain structures  Lateral hypothalamus  Hunger on center  Ventromedial hypothalamus  Hunger off center  Paraventricular nucleus  Filled with receptors to stimulate or suppress hunger o Psychological Factors  Attitude  Habits  Such as eating when lonely or bored  Sexual behavior o Sex is a very powerful motivator o Action of hormones and stimuli triggering sexual behavior  Organizational effects  Development of sex organs in utero  Release of hormones such as androgens and estrogens  Activational effects  Stimulate sexual development during puberty  Androgens tend to stimulate sexual desire o Masters and Johnson  The 4 stages of sexual response o Sexual Response Cycle  Excitement phase  Arousal builds rapidly  Blood flow to arteries increases as well as to in and around genital organs, nipples and breasts o Called vasocongestion  Penis and clitoris become erect, vaginal lubrication begins and muscle tension increases throughout the body  Plateau Phase  Tension in muscles builds until there is enough for orgasm o Mainly respiration, heart rate and vasocongestion  Orgasm Phase  Males o Contractions in internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding urethra project semen out of penis  Follow by resolution phase  Physiological arousal decreases rapidly o Refractory period where you cannot reach another orgasm  Females
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