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Chapter 15

Psychology Chapter 15 Review.docx

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Psychology 1000

Psychology Chapter 15: Stress, Coping and Health  Stress o Nature of stress  Stress is a pattern of cognitive appraisals, psych responses, and behavioral tendencies that occur in response to perceive imbalance between situation demands and the resources needed to cope with them  Also a pattern of physiological, biological, emotional and cognitive response to real or imagined stimuli that are perceived as blocking a goal or endangering our well-being  Stressors are situations that place demands on organisms that tax or exceeds their resources  Catastrophes, life changes and hassles  Can range from micro stressors to severe stressors  Intervening factors then cause stress reactions  Life events are questionnaires that measure the number of positive and negative life events that have occurred over a specific period of time o Stress Response  Lazarus  Primary o Initial appraisal of a of a situation as benign, irrelevant, or threatening  A perception of the severity of demands  Secondary o One’s judgement of the adequacy of personal resources needed to cope with a stressor o Selye’s GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome)  For chronic stress  Three phases of adaptation  Alarm reaction o The shift to sympathetic dominance causes increased arousal  Resistance o The adrenal glands release epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol to maintain increased arousal  Cortisol  Increase in blood sugars  Suppresses immune system  Fight or flight response  Exhaustion o The adrenal glands lose their ability to function normally o Very vulnerable to disease o Protective Factors  Environmental or personal resources that help you cope with stressful events o Vulnerability factors  Increase people’s susceptibility to stressful events  Lack of a support network, poor coping skills, reduce stress resistance  Importance of Beliefs o Hardiness  Stress protective factor  Composed of commitment, control and challenge o Hardy people are committed to their activities deemed important o View themselves as having control over the outcomes of their activities o Appraise activities and troubles as challenge rather than threats o Coping self-efficacy  Protective factor  The conviction that we can perform the behaviors necessary to successfully cope with an event  Can I handle these demands?  Self-efficacy can fortify your body and mind to stress o Optimism  Linked to better health and longer life  Our beliefs will change how we perceive the end and result of an event, negative or not  Optimists have a positive view of the world, expect that everything will work out  Not as depressed about a negative event as they believe the next thing will work out better o Personality factors  Type A  Tend to live under great pressure  Demanding of themselves  Exaggerated sense of time urgency and become very irritated at delays  High levels of competitiveness and hostility when things don’t go their way  Type B  More relaxed, agreeable and less time urgency  Less risk to engage in smoking or other drugs as method of relaxation  Less risk for coronary heart disease o Physiological toughness  Stress hormone pattern  You are tough if o Low resting level of cortisol and low levels of cortisol secretion in response to stressors o Quick, strong catecholamine response when stressor occurs, followed by quick decline in arousal when stressor is over  Coping o Strategies  Problem focused  Involves direct attempts to confront and master a stressful situation  Emotion focused  Directed at minimizing or reducing emotional response to a stressor o Social support  Social suppo
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