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Chapter 17

Psychology Chapter 17 Review.docx

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 17: Psychological Treatment  2 main approaches o Somatic therapy  Biological approach  Treating the disorder by a means of intervention, such as drugs or surgery o Psychotherapy  Talking therapy  Therapist takes particular approach to the problem  Effectiveness of a therapy  Psychoanalytic Therapy o Psychoanalysis involves the probing of the unconscious for the deep seeded conflicts that give rise to a particular disorder  Classic Freudian psychoanalysis not practiced today  For obvious reasons  Long and extensive, and a little insulting o Dream analysis  Removes ego from the equation  Allows you to get at the root of your ingrained issues  Try to understand what the symbols in your dreams really mean  Where the problems lie o Free association  Procedure of verbalizing all thoughts that enter consciousness without censorship  Report everything that comes to mind  Up to analyst to listen well for things like pausing at a sensitive subject, that may show that’s a place to look into o For example, talking about random people and start to pause when mentions father  Issues regarding parental figure or authority o Interpretation  Analyst makes a statement to promote insight in the client  Guide them to a deeper understanding of themselves o Transference  When patient transfers thoughts from dreams or thoughts about other people onto the analyst  Deep sexual desire for brother, relays to analyst by seeking intercourse with him since they look alike or sound alike o Resistance  Patient shows resilience to therapy  Avoids topics, doesn’t want to talk, shyness o Most effective for anxiety and in younger people  Not effective on schizophrenic people or older people o Contemporary psychoanalysis borrows parts from traditional psychoanalysis  Humanistic Therapy o Sharp contrast to Freudian approach  Humanist views that all people are essentially good and worthwhile  Approach them as a friend, not a doctor that tells them how to get better o Roger’s Client-Centered Therapy  The patient-doctor relationship needs to be very strong, and the environment for therapy must support self-exploration and personal growth  Needs to be a supportive environment  Given unqualified support for feelings and beliefs  Unconditional positive regard o Therapist shows to client that they genuinely respect and care about them  They also accept them without judgement or ridicule o Must communicate a sense of trust to patient  Therapist makes every attempt to empathise with client  Therapist comes to sense with feelings and emotions conveyed by the client o Will frequently repeat or rephrase a feeling the client showed to help them better understand themselves  Note: they are a client, not a patient  Genuineness  The therapist should be constant in how they feel and how they behave o Should be very open with client, express both negative and positive feelings o Gestalt Therapy  Made to make you really come to terms with your problem dynamically  Example o Sit in chair and pretend to talk to your mother, playing both roles  Analyst can see underlying issues from the portrayal of the mother  Cognitive Therapy o Works with cognitive restructuring  Alternating the way we think about things o Ellis’ Rational Emotive Therapy  ABCD model  Activating event o Something that triggers an emotion  Belief system o The way that you appraise an event  Consequences o The consequences of the appraisal made  Disputing o Challenging or disputing a wrong belief system you have  Many of our problems stem from unreasonable and irrational expectations we set for ourselves  Take irrational belief and adopt a rational alternative as truth  We need to bring these into the light of reality  You must stand in front of people and admit to your beliefs  Shy people must ride the subway and shout out the stops o By bringing these beliefs into the open, you can evaluate how rational they are o Beck’s Cognitive Therapy  Also used to point out errors in thinking and logic in patients  Patient needs to understand it’s their thoughts that cause their emotions, not the events themselves  Much more clear cut than psychoanalytic therapy o Patient will know what happened, what realizations they made and how the analyst helped them do it o Works well for depression, anger and anxiety disorders  Behavior Therapy o Disorder is viewed as a failure in learning and treatment attempts at correction  Disorder was learned and can be unlearned  Therapy focuses on unlearning the bad behavior and learning the proper one o Exposure-Based Treatment  Systematic desensitization  Known as gradual exposure conditioning o Three main steps  Identify anxiety causing stimuli  Learn coping techniques  Introduce first item on hierarchy. Let patient reach calm. Once patient is calm, try second item and gradually increase items in severity until the actual phobic item is presented, and patient is calm in its presence  Flooding  Face the fear head on, at its worst o If you’re afraid of spiders, therapist will have you play and interact with them for hours until you’re no longer afraid
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