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Chapter 3

Sept 27th - Chapter 3 Biological Foundations of Behaviour textbook notes.docx

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

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Chapter 3Biological Foundations of Behaviour thSeptember 27 3 parts of a neurontheir functions 1 The cell body somacontains genetic information and the biochemical structures needed to keep the neuron alive 2 Dendritesspecialized receiving units that have antennalike structures that collect messages from neighbouring neurons and sends them to the cell body 3 Axonconducts electrical impulses away from the cell body to other neurons muscles or glandsEach axon may connect with dendritic branches from numerous neurons making it possible for many interconnectionsGlial cells surround neurons and hold them in place Glial cells have 3 main functions when regarding the nervous system 1 Manufacture nutrient chemicals that neurons need 2 For the myelin sheath around some axons 3 Absorb toxins and waste materialsThe high concentration of sodium ions in the fluid outside the cell together with the negatively charged protein ions inside results in an uneven distribution of positive and negative ions that makes the interior of the cell negative compared to the outsideThe neuron is said to be in a state of polarization when there is a shift of ions from interior to exterior of the cell or viceversaAn action potential is the sudden reversal in the neurons membranes voltageAction potentials occur in a uniform maximum intensity or they do not occur at all this is called the All or Nothing PrincipleChanges in the negative resting potential that do not reach the 50mV action potential threshold are called graded potentialsIn Myelinated axons electrical conduction can skip from node to nodeand these great leaps from one gap to another account for high conduction speeds 300 kmhInadequate myelinization or damage to the myelin coatings of the axonNeurotransmitters achieve excitation by the binding of a transmitter molecule to the receptor site producing a chemical reaction that can have one of two effects on the postsynaptic neuron In some cases the reaction will depolarize excite the
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