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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - Textbook Notes.docx

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 2 Textbook Notes Steps in the scientific process: 1. Identify a question of interest 2. Gather information & form a hypothesis 3. Test hypothesis by conducting research 4. Analyze Data, draw tentative conclusions, and report findings 5. Building a body of knowledge by asking further questions  A case study is an in depth analysis of an individual, group, or an event What are the major limitations of case studies?  They are a poor method for determining cause-effect relations  In naturalistic observation the researcher observes behaviour as it occurs in a natural setting, and attempts to avoid influencing that behaviour  In survey research, information about a topic is obtained by administering questionnaires or interviews to many people.  A population consists of all the individuals about whom we are interested in drawing a conclusion  A sample is a subset of individuals drawn from the larger population of interest Representative Sample: one that reflects the important characteristics of the population  To examine relationships, scientists conduct correlational research, which has 3 components 1. The researcher measures one variable (X), such as peoples birth order 2. The researcher measures a second variable (Y), such as a personality trait 3. The researcher statistically determines whether X and Y are related  Remember, correlational research involves measuring variables, not manipulating them Correlation Coefficient: is a statistic that indicates the direction and strength of the relation between two variables. Positive Correlation: means that the higher the scores on one variable are associated with higher scores on the second variable. Negative Correlation: Occurs when higher scores on one variable are associated with lower scores on a second variable.  Correlational research measures the association between naturally occurring variables. A positive correlation means that higher scores on one variable are associated with higher scores on a second variable. A negative correlation occurs when higher scores on one variable are associated with
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