Steps in the scientific process:
1. Identify a question of interest
2. Gather information & form a hypothesis
3. Test hypothesis by conducting research
4. Analyze Data, draw tentative conclusions, and report findings
5. Building a body of knowledge by asking further questions
A case study is an in depth analysis of an individual, group, or an event
What are the major limitations of case studies?
They are a poor method for determining cause-effect relations
In naturalistic observation the researcher observes behaviour as it occurs in a
natural setting, and attempts to avoid influencing that behaviour
In survey research, information about a topic is obtained by administering
questionnaires or interviews to many people.
A population consists of all the individuals about whom we are interested in drawing
A sample is a subset of individuals drawn from the larger population of interest
Representative Sample: one that reflects the important characteristics of the
To examine relationships, scientists conduct correlational research, which has 3
1. The researcher measures one variable (X), such as peoples birth order
2. The researcher measures a second variable (Y), such as a personality trait
3. The researcher statistically determines whether X and Y are related
Remember, correlational research involves measuring variables, not manipulating
Correlation Coefficient: is a statistic that indicates the direction and strength of the
relation between two variables. Positive Correlation: means that the higher the scores on one variable are associated
with higher scores on the second variable.
Negative Correlation: Occurs when higher scores on one variable are associated with
lower scores on a second variable.
Correlational research measures the association between naturally occurring
variables. A positive correlation means that higher scores on one variable are
associated with higher scores on a second variable. A negative correlation occurs
when higher scores on one variable are associated with