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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Intelligence.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 10 INTELLIGENCE - Intelligence: ability to acquire knowledge, think and reason effectively, deal adaptively with environment Intelligence in Historical Perspective - Sir Francis Galton o Strongly influenced by Darwin’s theory o Thought people inherited mental constitutions that made them more intelligent than other people o His mental-skill measurement fell in disfavor because measure of nervous-system efficiency proved unrelated to socially relevant measures of mental ability - Alfred Binet o Told by France’s Ministry of Public Education to make test o Made 2 assumptions about intelligence  Mental abilities develop with age  Rate at which people gain mental competence is characteristic of person and fairly constant over time o Made standardized interview o Mental age: score of the result of testing  Concept expanded by Stern  Made intelligence quotient: ratio of mental age and chronological age multiplied by 100  Not useful for adults o Therefore made, IQ test  Based on person’s performance relative to scores of other people in same age - Terman revised Binet’s test into Standford-Binet test o Contained mostly verbal items and made one IQ score - Otis made the prototype for Army Alpha: verbally oriented test to screen army recruits for intellectual fitness - Weschsler then made a test for verbal and non-verbal abilities o Called WAIS (for adults) and WISC (for children) and Weschsler Preschool and primary scale of intelligence (WPPSI) Nature of Intelligence - 2 approaches in study of intelligence o Psychometric approach: tries to identify and measure abilities that underlie individual differences in performance  Psychometrics: statistical study of psychological tests  Factor analysis: statistical technique that reduce large number of measures to smaller number of clusters  Each cluster has variables that correlate highly with each other but not with other clusters o Cognitive processes approach: specific thought processes that underlie the mental competencies - G factor: intelligence as general mental capacity o Spearman first argued that intelligence is a general ability  Observed that some subjects like English and math were almost always positively correlated  Showed that these have a more basic or general mental capacity that contributes to them  G factor: general intelligence  Constitutes as core of intelligence  Matters a lot in predictor of academic and job performance  Said intellectual performance determined partly by g factor and partly by whatever special abilities might be needed to perform the particular task  Ex. Performance in mathematics depend on general intelligence but also on specific ability to learn math o Thurstone said human mental performace does not depend on general factor but on 7 distinct abilities  Called these the primary mental abilities  Space  Verbal comprehension  Word fluency  Number facility: Dealing with numbers  Perceptual speed: recognizing visual patterns  Rote memory: memorizing  Reasoning: dealing with novel problems  Educators more interested in this because points to students area of strength and weakness - Crystallized and fluid intelligence o Cattell and Horn broke down Spearman’s general intelligence into 2 subtypes  Crystallized intelligence: ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems  Measured by vocabulary and information tests  Dependent on previous learning and practice  Dependent on long-term memory  Fluid intelligence: ability to deal with novel problem solving situations where personal experience does not help  Use inductive reasoning, creative problem solving skills  Dependent on functioning of central nervous system  Dependent on working memory o Progress from fluid intelligence to crystallized intelligence o Crystallized intelligence improves with age, fluid declines - Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model o Three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities: establish 3 levels of mental skill arranged in hierarchical model  General  Top  Third stratum  G factor that is thought to underlie most mental activity  Broad  2 stratum  8 Broad intellectual factors o Arranged from left to right in terms of extent which they are influenced by o Fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, general memory and learning, broad visual perception, broad auditory perception, broad retrieval ability, broad cognitive speediness, processing speed  Narrow  First stratum  70 specific cognitive abilities that feed into the 2 - stratum factors o Made with elements from Spearman’s, Thurstone’s, and Cattell-Horn’s model Cognitive Process approaches: Nature of Intelligent Thinking - Cognitive process theories: explore specific information-processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability - Sternberg made triarchic theory of intelligence: address both psychological processes involved in intelligent behavior and diverse forms intelligence can take o Divide into 3 components  Metacomponents: higher-order processes that are used to plan and regulate task performance  Source of individual differences in fluid intelligence  Performance components: actual mental processes used to perform task  Knowledge-acquisition components: learn from experience, store information in memory, combine new insights with known knowledge  Underlie differences in crystalized intelligence o Believed there are 3 different kinds of intelligence  Analytical intelligence: academically oriented problem solving skills measured by traditional tests  Practical intelligence: skills needed to cope with everyday demands and manage oneself and others effectively  Creative intelligence: mental skills needed to deal with new problems Broader Conceptions of Intelligence - Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences o Made theory of multiple intelligence based on how human abilities affected by brain damage o 8 different varieties and maybe one ninth  Linguistic Intelligence: ability to use language well  Logical-mathematical intelligence: ability to reason mathematically and logically  Visuospatial intelligence: ability to solve spatial problems or succeed in field like architecture  Musical intelligence: ability to perceive pitch and rhythms and understand and produce music  Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: ability to control body movements and skillfully manipulate objects  Interpersonal intelligence: ability to understand and relate to others  Intrapersonal intelligence: ability to understand oneself  Naturalistic intelligence: ability to detect and understand phenomena in natural world  Existential intelligence: ability to ponder philosophically questions o First three are measured by existing intelligence tests o Form of intelligence that is most highly valued in a culture depends on adaptive requirements of culture - Emotional Intelligence: ability to read other’s emotions accurately, to respond accurately, to motivate oneself, aware of one’s emotions, regulate and control own emotional response o Mayer and Salovey o 4 components  perceiving emotions  Measured by people’s accuracy in judging emotional expressions in facial photograph  Using emotions to facilitate thought  Ask people to identify emotions to best enhance particular type of thinking  understand emotion  asked to specify condition under which their emotions change in intensity or type  manage emotion  ask to indicate how they can change their own or other’s emotions to facilitate success or increase harmony o Use Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test to measure each component o People who have high emotional intelligence sometimes are more successful than those with high mental ability Measurement of Intelligence - WAIS-III and WISC-IV most popular tests - WAIS-III has series of subtests that fall into 2 classes o Verbal o Performance o Makes 3 summary scores  Verbal IQ  Performance IQ  Fulll-Scale IQ  Based on both subtests o Sometimes need to look at thee differences between Verbal IQ and performance IQ before making assumption - WISC-IV assess children between ages 6-11 - As kids mature, general intelligence becomes more stable and specific ability becomes more differentiated Theory based intelligence tests - Kaufman test has 3 crystal
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