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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Development over the Lifespan.docx

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Chapter 12 Development over the Lifespan Developmental Psychology: Issues and Methods - 4 broad issues that guide developmental research o Nature vs Nurture o Critical vs Sensitive Periods  Critical period: age range that experience MUST occur for development to proceed normally  Sensitive period: Optimal age range for certain experiences o Continuity vs discontinuity  Development continuous and gradual or go through distinct stages? o Stability vs change  Do our characteristics remain same as we age? - Research these issues by plotting developmental functions performance with age - Cross-sectional design: research design that simultaneously compare people of different ages at particular point in time o Problem with this is different age groups grew up in different periods - Longitudinal design: research design that repeatedly tests same age group as they grow older o Avoids the problem with cross-sectional design o BUT this is time-consuming and people move, drop out of study, or die o And don’t know if the results are because of aging or something unique to that age group - Sequential design: combines cross-sectional and longitudinal approach o Test several age groups as grow older and see if they follow similar developmental pattern o BUT most time-consuming and costly Prenatal Development - 3 stages o Germinal stage: first 2 weeks of development  Sperm fertilizes egg o Embryonic stage: 2 week – 8 week  Cell mass now embryo  Placenta and umbilical cord develop at start of stage  Placental contain membranes that allow nutrients to pass from mother’s blood to umbilical cord  Umbilical cord contain blood vessels that carry nutrients and oxygen to embryo and waste products back to mother  Body organs begin to form  Week 8 – heart beating, brain forming, facial features recognized th o Fetal stage: 9 week until birth  Now called fetus  Muscles stronger and other body systems develop  28 weeks = age of viability  Likely to survive out of womb incase of premature birth Genetics and Sex Determination - TDF (Testis Determining Factor): specific gene on Y chromosome that triggers male sexual development - 6-8 weeks after conception, TDF initiate development of testes o Testes secrete androgens that continue o If no TDF, no testes, not sufficient androgen activity during prenatal critical period, female organs start to form Environmental influence - Teratogens: environmental agents that cause abnormal prenatal development o Placenta to the most part protects the embryo against harmful chemicals and disease - STD can pass from mother to fetus - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: group of severe abnormalities that result from prenatal exposure to alcohol o Cause facial abnormalities o Small brains - Nicotine: increase risk of miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight o Second-hand smoke can also cause this o Babies of drug addicts experience withdrawal symptoms and are born addicted - Loud sounds or when listening to music causes fetal body movements and heart rate changes o Fetus learn after a while  Stop responding to repeated presentations of sounds  Show preference to sounds heard when in womb - Fetus can learn about odours too o Show preference to the odours the mom ate when pregnant Infancy and Childhood - Visual receive little prenatal stimulation so good for identifying innate capacities - Preferential looking procedure: study used by Frantz to research infants’ visual preference o Infants like complex patterns o Have poor vision too - Newborns orient to significant stimuli in environment - Newborn learning o Learn rapidly o Visual habituation procedure: same stimulus presented repeatedly until infant looking time declines  When new stimulus presented, infants look at new one longer than familiar one o Auditory habituation procedure: Zelazo used to study infant memory  Zelazo used it to identify information-processing problems  Morrongiello used it to show that newborns rapidly associate particular sounds with particular objects o Can learn through classical and operant conditioning o Newborns imitate some adult facial expressions  Helps them recognize people and engage in social exchange Sensory-Perceptual development - Auditory pattern perceptions advanced in young infants o Can detect phonemes  Can even detect ones that aren’t in parent’s language  This ability lost by 12 months of age o Perceive music as adults do - Most sensory-perceptual processes exercised in uterus o All operate at birth o Most improve rapidly during first year of life o Some appear than decline or disappear Physical, brain and motor development - Maturation: genetically programed biological process that governs our growth - Cephalocaudal principle: tendency for development to proceed head-to-food direction o Head of infant disproportionately large because it grows first - Proximodistal principle: development begins along innermost parts of body and continue to outermost parts - Brain o At birth, brain only 25% of adult weight  By 6 months reach 50%  Rapid brain growth during infancy and early childhood  Dies down in later childhood o First areas to mature – ones that regulate basic survival functions o Last areas – frontal cortex - Motor Development o Sequence in which skills appear is similar across infants o Reflexes presented at birth - Environmental and Cultural Influences o Malnutrition stunt growth and brain development o Thrive in environment where infant can interact with other and objects o Physical tough accelerates weight gain and neurological development o Experience can influence basic motor skill development o Biology sets limits on environmental influence o Environmental influence can be powerful o Biological and environmental factors interact Cognitive Development - Pigaet’s Stage Model o Worked with Binet o Brain builds schemas o Cognitive development= getting new schemas and making the ones we already have more complex o 2 key processes  Assimilation: process where new experiences are incorporated into existing schema  Accommodation: process where new schemas are to change  Schemas become more complex or might make new schemas o Stages  Sensorimotor: birth – 2  Infants understand world through sensory experience and motor interactions with objects  Reflexes = earliest schema  Object permanence: understanding that object continues to exist when it can no longer be seen  Toward end, start to use words to represent what they are thinking  Preoperational: age 2  Represent world through words and mental images  Pretend play  Does not understand conservation o Volume, mass, quantity can stay same even though outward appearance might change  Hard for them to reverse action mentally  Egocentric o Hard to view world in someone else’s perspective  Concrete operational: 7-12  Perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible objects and situations  Reversibility  Less centration  Easily solved conservation problem  Get serial ordering  Can’t do abstract reasoning  Formal operational: 11-12  Can think logically about concrete and abstract problems - Piaget’s universality principle: same stage order in all cultures o But culture influences cognitive development too - PROBLEMS WITH PIAGET’S MODEL o Culture influences development too o Infants and children seem to get concepts at earlier ages than Piaget proposed  Created violation of expectancy experiment to do this  Violation of expectancy experiment: to show that infants understand a concept, show them an action that violates the concept and if the infant stares at it for a long time, then understands the concept o A lot of controversy because make inferences that we know what’s going on in infants head o Development more complex and variable than Piaget proposed o Test performance affected by many variables o Development within each stage inconsistent  But Piaget is the discontinuous approach so this shouldn’t happen - Vygotsky: The social context of Cognitive Development o Showed how sociocultural context interacts with brain’s biological maturation o Zone of proximal development: difference between what child can do independently and what child can do with assistance  Helps us recognize what child can do by themselves  Emphasize people can help cognitive development forward within limits - Information-processing approaches o Continuous and gradual process approach  Gradual process where same set of information processing abilities become better over time o Speed child process information becomes faster with age o Attention span and selective attention improve with age o Working memory improves with age - Theory of Mind o Theory of Mind: person’s beliefs about mind and ability to understand other peoples mental states o 2-3 year olds not good o But by 4 years olds get better o By 6 years most pass standard false belief test - Lying and Deception o Those who have false belief understanding more likely to lie - Perspective taking and early word-learning o Infants begin to make inferences about adult’s perspective, knowledge, and intentions o Can understand several aspect of other people’s thinking by 3-4 years of age Social-Emotional and Personality Development - Around 18 months, develop sense of self o Recognize themselves - Age 2 learn about rules they have to follow, pride, shame o Also show guilt - Emotional regulation: process we evaluate and modify emotional reactions - Emotional competence: emotional expressiveness, ability to regulate emotions o Influence social behavior - Temperament: biologically based general style of reacting emotionally and behaviorally to environment o Behavioural inhibition: temperament style  Inhibited infants – quiet and timid  Uninhibited infants- sociable, verbal  Usually moderately stable o Prediction for childhood  Those only moderately/mildly stable – temperament cant predict how they would be when grow up  Those highly uninhibited or inhibited usually stay the same o Prediction for adult is really hard o Some traits have genetic markers o Very strong traits stay relatively stable over age - Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory o 8 major psychosocial stages o Each involved different conflict of how we view the world o 4 occur in infancy and childhood  Basic trust vs basic mistrust  Depend on how much love and attention  Autonomy vs shame and doubt  Independence or shame and doubt towards abilities  Depend on restricting or making harsh demands  Initiative vs guilt  Depend on if they are allowed freedom or help back for their curiosity  Industry vs Inferiority  Industry: strive to achieve  Inferiority: caused by repeated failure and lack of encouragement/ praise o Other 4 are  Identity vs role confusion  Intimacy vs isolation  Generativity vs stagnation  Integrity vs despair - Attachment o Imprinting: sudden biological primed form of attachment  Involves critical period o Attachment: strong emotional bond that develop between children and caregiver  First few years are sensitive period o Harlow did research with monkey’s attachment  Found contact comfort (body contact with comforting object) is more important for attachment than nourishment o Bowlby proposed attachment occurs in 3 phases  Indiscriminate attachment: newborns emit behaviors toward everyone  Discriminate attachment: 3 months, direct attachment behaviors toward more familiar caregivers  Specific attachment behavior: 7-8 months, first meaningful attachment to specific caregivers o When attachment is complete, 2 types of anxiety appear  Stranger anxiety: distress over contact with unfamiliar people  6-7 months  Ends by 18 months  Separation anxiety: distress being separated from caregiver  12-16 months  End by 2-3 years o Bowbly – G
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