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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Social Psychology..docx

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Chapter 13 Social Psychology Attribution: Perceiving Causes of Behavior - Attributions: judgments about causes of our own behavior and outcomes - Personal vs Situational Attributions o Personal attributions: people’s behavior is caused by their characteristics o Situational Attributions: aspects of situation can cause behavior - Kelley- 3 types of information determine the attribution we make o Consistency o Distinctiveness o Consensus o If all high, make it into situational o If consistency is high but other 2 are low make it into personal - Attributional Bias o Fundamental attribution error: underestimate impact of situation and overestimate role of personal factors  Applies to how we perceive other people’s behavior rather than our own b/c…  We have more information about present situation when making judgments about ourselves  When watch others, they become figure and we are background  When have time to reflect on judgment and are careful, error is reduced o Self-serving bias: making more personal attributions for success and more situational attributions for failures  More prominent in Western countries - Culture and Attribution o More situational attributes as time goes for less individualistic cultures o Influence type of attributions we make o Affect we make attributions too  East Asians have more complex views on causes of behavior Forming and Maintaining Impressions - Attributions play key role in impression formation - Primacy vs Recency o Primacy effect: tendency to attach more importance to initial information we learn about person  More alert to information we receive first  Initial information shape how we perceive the next information  But can decrease and recency effect can occur o Recency effect: giving greater weight to most recent information - Mental sets and Schemas o Same stimulus can be seen in different ways  Mental set shapes how we interpret stimulus o Schemas create our mental set o Stereotype – powerful type of schema - Self-fulfilling prophecies: creating what we expect to see o Self-fulfilling prophecy: unconsciously; people’s expectations lead others in a way to bring about expected behaviors, confirming original impression Attitudes and Attitude Change - Attitude: positive or negative evaluation reaction toward stimulus - Most say that attitude affects behavior but LaPiere’s study did not…why? o Attitudes influence behavior strongly when counteracting situational factors are weak  Theory of planned behavior: intention to engage in behavior is strongest when have positive attitude toward behavior, when norms support it, when we believe behavior is under our control o Attitudes have greater influence on behavior if aware of them and strongly held o General attitudes are better at predicting general classes of behavior  Specific attitudes better at predicting specific behavior - Behavior influence attitude? o Theory of cognitive dissonance: people strive for consistency in cognitions  Festinger  When two cognition contradict, expression cognitive dissonance and want to reduce this dissonance  Do this by changing one of their cognitions or adding a new one  Counterattitudinal behavior: behavior that’s inconsistent with attitude  Only produce dissonance if perceive actions were freely chosen  Can decrease dissonance by changing attitude, rationalizing attitude wasn’t important or by making another excuse o Self-perception theory: make inferences about our own attitudes by how we behave  Bern o Both theories correct but under different circumstances - Persuasion o Involves communicator that delivers message through channel to audience with context o Communicator credibility: how believable communicator is  Key to effective persuasion  Credibility – 2 major components  Expertise  Trustworthiness o For message, 2-sided refutational approach is more effective  Moderate degree of discrepancy is effective  Evoking moderate fear is best o 2 basic routes to persuasion  Central route to persuasion: people think carefully about message and are persuaded because find arguments compelling  Longer change in attitude  More likely to go this route when personally relevant  High need for cognition  Peripheral route to persuasion: people don’t really get the message but influenced by other factor  Low need for cognition The Mere Presence of others - Zajonc o Mere physical presence of another person increase arousal o Increase arousal cause us to do our dominant response to specific situation  Social facilitation: increased tendency to perform one’s dominant response in mere presence of others Social norms - Social norms: shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave - Social role: set of norms that characterize how people in given social position should behave o Role conflict can occur when norms of different roles clash Culture and norm formation - Human placed together seem to develop norms Conformity and obedience - Conformity: adjustment of individual to group standard - Informational social influence: conform to other people because we believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is right - Normative social influence: conform to get rewards from being accepted by other people - Factors that affect conformity o Group size o Presence of dissenter  If someone disagreed with the other, reduce conformity - Minority influence o Minority influence strong when committed, persevere under the majority’s pressure, and consistent - Factors that influence destructive obedience o Remoteness of victim  Obedience greater when learner is out of sight o Closeness and legitimacy of authority figure  Obedience highest when authority figure close and perceived as legitimate o Cog in a wheel  Obedience increase when someone else does dirty work o Personal characteristics - Detecting and Resisting compliance techniques o Compliance techniques: strategies that manipulate you into saying yes when you really want to say no o Norm of reciprocity: expectation that when others treat us well, we should respond in kind o Door-in-the-face technique: persuader makes large request expecting you to reject it, and then make a smaller request  Persuader “compromise” by making second request  Feel pressured to reciprocate by complying o Food-in-the-door technique: gets you to say yes to small request then present larger request o Lowballing technique: persuader gets you to commit to some action, then right before performing, increases cost of same behavior Crowd Behaviour and Deindividuation - Deindividuation: loss of individuality that leads to disinhibited behavior o Anonymity to outsiders is key for this Group influences on performance and decision making - Social loafing: failing to pull your own weight o Social loafing: tendency for people to expend less individual effort when working in a group  Cause? Collective effort model: put forth effort only to extent that they expect their effort to contribute  Williams and Karau o More likely to occur  People believe individual performance not monitored  Task has less value or meaning to person  Group is less important to person  Task simple and person’s input is redundant o Fatigue increases this o Depend on gender and culture  More in all-male than all-female or mixed-sex groups - Groups polarization – going to extremes o If group is generally conservative to begin with, will become more conservative o If group is more liberal, will become more liberal/riskier o Why?  Normative social influence: individuals who are attracted to a group may be motivated to adopt more extreme position to get group’s approval  Informational social influence: people hear arguments they haven’t considered making the initial position more valid - Groupthink: suspending critical thinking o Groupthink: tendency for group members to suspend critical thinking because they are striving for agreement o More likely to happen when…  Under high stress to reach decision  Insulated from outside input  Has directive leader who promotes personal agenda  High cohesion  Spirit of closeness/ ability to work together o Can be prevented by the leader being impartial during discussions Affiliation and Interpersonal attraction - Why do we affiliate o Over evolution, those who affiliate – more likely to survive and reproduce o Hill – affiliate for 4 reasons  Obtain positive stimulation  Receive emotional support  Gain attention  Permit social comparison  Social comparison: compare beliefs, feelings, behaviors with those of other people o Differ in how strong their desire is to affiliate  Higher need = stronger psychological sense of community o When afraid, prefer to be with people who have gone through the feared situation - Initial attraction o N
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