Textbook Notes (368,566)
Canada (161,966)
Psychology (4,907)
Psychology 1000 (1,634)
Terry Biggs (193)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Treatment of Psychological Disease.docx

11 Pages
69 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 17 Treatment of Psychological Disease - Goal of treatment is to help - Categories of medical health professionals o Counseling and clinical psychologists o Psychiatrist o Psychiatric social worker o Marriage and family counselor o Pastoral counselor o Abuse counselor PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPIES - Focus on internal conflict and unconscious factor PSYCHOANALYSIS - Goal – help achieve insight o Insight allows to adjust behavior and current life situations  Redirects the psychic energy devoted to keeping unconscious conflict under control to more adaptive ways of living - Free association o Trying to find clues in a constant stream of thoughts, memories, feelings, and images o Lie on couch and just talk  Psychologist sits away so client cant see him - Dream interpretation o Believed dreams express unconscious o Helps client search for unconscious material in dreams - Resistance o Defensive maneuvers that hinder process of therapy o Sign that anxiety-arousing material is being approached o Important task for analysis is to explore the reason for resistance, provide insight and prevent them from dropping out - Transference o Occurs when client responds as though analyst is an important figure from past o Most important process  Brings repressed feelings out to open o Positive transference: transfer feelings of intense affection, dependency, love to analyst o Negative transference: irrational expressions of anger, hatred, disappointment to analyst o Until transference is figured out and resolved, no full resolution of client - Interpretation o Any statement by therapist intended to provide client with insight to their behavior or dynamics o Rule = interpret what is near the surface not deep ones o If say something too deep, might cause resistance as so far from client’s current awareness  Client has to reach the insight BRIEF PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPIES - Classical therapies required five times a week for +five years - Recent research shows unnecessary o Rate of improvement always high at beginning and decrease overtime - Utilize basic concepts from psychoanalysis but in more focused and active fashion - Seen once or twice a week - Goal- helping client deal with specific life problems instead of remaking whole personality - More likely to focus on client’s current life situation o Teach specific interpersonal and emotion-control skills - One type: interpersonal therapy o Highly structured o 15-20 sessions o Focus on current interpersonal problems o One of the more effective therapies for depression HUMANISTIC PSYCHOTHERAPIES - Goal = clients engage in self-exploration and remove barriers that block natural tendencies toward personal growth o Barriers come from childhood experiences that foster unrealistic standards for self-worth - Focus on present and future than past o Help clients become aware of feelings as they occur CLIENT-CENTRED THERAPY - Most widely used o Developed by Rogers - Most important ingredient = relationship between therapist and client - 3 important therapist attributes o Unconditional positive regard  Communicate genuine care without judgment  Sense of trust o Empathy  Willing to view world through client’s eyes  Does this by reflecting back what the client said o Genuineness  Consistency in way therapist feels and way they behave  Must be open enough to honestly express feelings GESTALT THERAPY - Perls - Most of time, focus on only part of experience (the figure) o Ignore the background - Gestalt focuses on the whole experience - Carried out in groups - Imaginative techniques - Methods: more active and dramatic than client-centered approaches o Sometimes confrontational - Empty-chair technique: client image the “enemy” in empty chair and carry on conversation playing both roles o Proven to be very effective - Rogers committed to research that would help identify factors contributing to therapeutic success - Perls against research COGNITIVE THERAPIES - Identify beliefs, ideas, and statements that trigger the abnormal emotions and behaviors o Once identified, challenged and changed ELLIS’S RATIONAL-EMOTIVE THERAPY - Convinced that irrational thoughts are most immediate cause of self- defeating emotions - ABCD model o A: activating event  Triggers emotion o B: belief system  Underlies how person interprets event o C: consequences  Emotional and behavioral consequences of appraisal o D: disputing  Challenge the belief system - Introduce clients to common irrational ideas and train them to change the ideas that underlie the maladaptive emotional response - Might also challenge the clients to place themselves in challenging situations and practice control over emotions BECK’S COGNITIVE THEORY - First step – help clients realize that its their thoughts not the situation that causes the emotion and behavior - Psychological treatment of choice for depression - Self-instructional training: Meichenbaum o Influential in treatments related to stress and coping BEHAVIOURAL THERAPIES - Denied inner working - Insisted behavior disorders are learned in some ways and maladaptive behaviors can be unlearned by applications from classical/operant conditioning CLASSICAL CONDITIONING TREATMENTS - Used in 2 major ways o 1. Reduce anxiety response o 2. Condition new anxiety responses to particular class of stimuli - Exposure: an extinction approach o Phobia arise from phobic object paired with unconditioned stimulus so phobic becomes conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response o Avoidance reinforced by operant conditioning o Most direct way to reduce fear is exposure to feared stimulus without UCS while using response prevention to keep operant avoidance from happening  Exposed to stimuli by flooding or implosion therapy (imagine scene..)  Will feel anxiety at first but will extinguish if UCS is not present o Highly effective for both animals and humans o Treatment of choice for PTSD o Can administer exposure treatment on themselves with supervision of therapist o Often faster than systematic desensitization - Systematic desensitization: counterconditioning approach o Wolpe o Success rate is +80% o Use counterconditioning: new response that is incompatible with anxiety conditioned to CS o 1. Train client in voluntary muscle relaxation o 2. Help client construct stimulus hierarchy (10-15 scenes relating to fear)  Low anxiety to high anxiety o 3. Makes them relax and then visual the scenes low to high  If relaxation is strong enough, replace the CR to stimulus o In vivo desensitization: same thing but carefully controlled exposure to it - Aversion therapy o Pairs stimulus that is attractive to person to a result that does not feel good  Ex. injects alcoholic with nausea producing drug and makes them drink alcohol  Nausea and alcohol will be paired o Variable results  Some have been good like for alcoholics  Some can’t generalize the treatment to real world OPERANT CONDITIONING TREATMENTS - Behavior modification: treatment techniques that involve application of operant conditioning procedures in attempt to increase/decrease specific behavior - Effective in populations that are difficult to treat with more traditional therapies o Ex. schizophrenics… - Positive reinforcement o Danger of long-term institutionalization is loss of personal, social, occupational skills o Developed token economy (Ayllon, Azrin)  System for strengthening desired behavior through rewarding the patient with tokens whenever they do a desired behavior  Tokens can be redeemed for privileges  Highly effective - Therapeutic use of punishment o Least preferred way o Before using, always ask is there alternative and does the elimination of dangerous behavior towards themselves or society justify the severity of punishment MODELLING AND SOCIAL SKILLS TRAINING - Social skills training: clients learn new skills by observing and imitating model who perform socially skillful behavior o Used with other treatments - Effective because of increased self-efficacy - When believe they are able to do the behavior, they succeed in doing so THIRD-WAVE COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPIES - First wave = experiments based on animal models of classical and operant conditioning o No cognitive - Second wave= emergence of cognitive approaches o Ellis, Beck, Bandura - Third wave- add in mindfulness as center o Add in humanistic view, eastern methods MINDFULNESS-BASED TREATMENTS - Mindfulness: mental state of awareness, focus, openness, and acceptance of immediate experience - Based on nonjudgmental interpretations so that difficult thoughts and feelings have less of an impact - Important tool is meditation technique o People develop tranquil state and focus on sensations, thoughts, feelings - For stress management, shown to reduce physiological arousal and helps people to not be so emotional about it - Used to prevent lapses by increasing awareness of thoughts and emotions that trigger lapses o Help deal with lapses by helping neutralize self-blame and hopelessness - Acceptance and commitment therapy: focus on process of mindfulness as vehicle for change o Hayes o Teaches to just notice, and accept and embrace the thoughts and feelings o Examine one’s life, decide what is most important to them and set life goals  Therapist help client develop strategies to work toward the goals - Dialectical Behavioral therapy: treatment developed specifically for borderline personality disorder o Borderline clients hard to treat because of severity and diversity of symptoms, suicidal, and tendency to have bad relationship with therapist o Linehan o Combine cognitive, behavioral, humanistic, psychoanalytic  Cognitive: help learn more adaptive thinking on environment  Behavioral: help learn better skills  Psychodynamic: traces history of the problem  Humanistic: acceptance of thoughts and feelings o Mindfulne
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit