Textbook Notes (363,507)
Canada (158,391)
Psychology (4,731)
Psychology 1000 (1,558)
Dr.Mike (659)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 10 1. According to evolutionary psychologists, how does the concept of adaptive significance help us understand human motivation? - Motivation: a process the influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-oriented behavior - Instinct: inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus - Adaptive significance – a key to understanding motivation; why are we social creatures? Because, affiliation produced survival advantages (shared resources and protection) o This led to greater opportunities to pass genes on to next generation o Thus, we became biologically predisposed to be social rather than reclusive 2. How are homeostatic and drive concepts of motivation related? - Homeostasis: a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain - Drive theory of motivation: physiological disruptions to homeostasis produced drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension o Drives such as hunger and thirst arise from tissue deficits o Ultimately, you are look hoping to reduce drive o But, this is not supported in today’s society; people tend to behave in ways that increase states of arousal (not look to decrease) 3. According to expectancy X value theory, why might people respond differently to the same incentive? - Incentives: represent environmental stimuli that pull an organism toward a goal - Drive theory: push an organism toward the goal o Good grade can be an incentive for studying - Expectancy x value theory: proposes that goal-directed behavior is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviors will lead to a goal, and the value the individual places on that goal (incentive value) o Motivation = expectancy x incentive value - Extrinsic motivation: performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment - Intrinsic motivation: performing an activity for its own sake o Overall, extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic motivation most strongly when they are tangible 4. Explain Maslow’s concept of a need hierarchy. Do you agree with this model? - Maslow’s view – our striving for personal growth - Deficiency needs: concerned with physical and social survival - Growth needs: uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential - Need hierarchy: progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top o Self actualization: represents the need to fulfill our potential, and it is the ultimate human motive o Opponents argue why people endure pain to protect their comrades o All in all, every theoretical approaches have flaws and strengths 5. Describe some physiological signals that initiate hunger - Stomach contractions do indeed correspond to subjective feelings of hunger o But does it cause hunger? o Humans display a temporary drop-rise glucose pattern prior to hunger  Maybe this has something to do with initiating hunger 6. What signals cause us to stop eating? - As we eat, several bodily signals combine and ultimately cause us to end our meal - Stomach and intestinal distention are satiety signals o The walls of these organs stretch as food fills them up sending nerve signals to the brain o Nutritionally rich foods tend to produce satiety more quickly than an equal amount of less nutritional food - CCK (cholecystokinin) is an example of peptide (intestinal hormone) 7. Explain how leptin regulates appetite. How did scientists learn about leptin’s role? - Leptin: hormone that decreases appetite - Leptin signals the brain to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure o As we secrete more leptin, we tend to eat less because satiety factors make us feel full sooner o As we secrete less leptin, we eat more because we need more satiety factors to make us feel full o So, leptin regulates appetite by increasing the potency of other signals - Leptin became known when researching with genetically obese mice o Mutated mice do not have ob gene which directs fat cells to produce leptin o Another form of mutation deals with db gene (brain receptors are insensitive to leptin, so injecting leptin doesn’t reduce weight) 8. What evidence suggested that the LH and VMH were hunger on and off centres? What evidence suggests otherwise? - LH – lateral hypothalamus (hunger on centre) o Electrically stimulating this area caused the rat to start eating o Lesioning of this area led to starvation - VMH – ventromedial hypothalamus (hunger off) o Electrically stimulating caused the rat to stop eating o Lesioning of this area led to overeating - Later studies indicate however, damage to LH causes rats to stop eating because they have trouble swallowing and
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.