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Chapter 4

Ch. 4 - Genes, Oct. 4-16.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Fall

Description
Thursday October 4, 2012 Chapter 4: Genetic Influences 1) Chromosomes and Genes - Genotype the genetic makeup of an individual (ie. BB) - Phenotype the observable characteristics (ie. The genotype BB is the phenotype “black”) - Hereditary potential is carried within the DNA portion of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in units called genes - Each human has one gene pair from each parents - Alleles are forms of a gene that produce different characteristics - A gene is deemed dominant if the particular characteristic is displayed, while a gene is deemed recessive if the characteristics do not show up, unless another recessive gene is inherited. - Genes code for the production of proteins, thus it affects the body’s development, structure and function - Although genes and environment influence one another, traits are not necessarily due to natural selection. It can be a result of no natural selection: o Genetic drift or founder effect, is when a trait is produced due to chance or a restricted gene pool o Correlates of a structure a) Genetic Engineering - Advances in genetic engineering has allowed humans to map the human genome, and modify it as well - For instance, recombinant DNA procedures cuts the DNA into pieces, and combines them with the DNA of other organisms and put into a host organism. The new DNA combination divides. - Gene knockout eliminates a particular function of a gene, such as genetic material that will prevent neurons from responding to a particular neurotransmitter - For instance, an experiment with mice got rid of the reuptake of serotonin, leaving it in the synapse. This cause a great deal of stress in the mice and cause depression like symptoms. b) Heritability Coefficient - The degree of variation within a group is due to genetic factors - Concordance high genetic contribution than environment - Adoption study an adopted person is compared to some characteristics of its biological parents. The closer the characteristics are to his/her parents, then it is a genetic influence; whoever, if the characteristics are closer to his/her adoptive parents, it is more of an environmental influence - Twin studies is an imperative tool in genetic studies - Behaviour genetics have also showed that environmental factors interact with genetic factors in many ways, thus nature and nurture are both very important - Twin studies have shown that the more genetically similar two individuals are, the higher the correlation between their IQ scores. The scores are not perfect, thus indicating the role of the environment 2) Genetic Influence on Behaviour - Our behaviour is the result of the interaction between the environment and our genes - Heritability coefficient the extend to which a variation of a characteristic within a group can be attributed to genetic factors; estimates how much of a variation is due to genetic factors a) Intelligence - Twin studies reveal that although genes can determine intelligence in a person, it is the environment contributes to intelligence as well - Reaction range is a range of upper and lower limit set by the genetic code on genetically influenced traits - Therefore, genes influence intelligence but each individual has potential intelligence set by the upper and lower limits of their genetic code. The environment, such as cultural and educational advantages, can influence where a person will fall within this range - Genes do affect intelligence; however, the environment affects which limit will reach within their range b) Personality - Personality traits can also be determined by brain development and arousal; genetic components can also play role in personality development - Personality characteristics are not as heritable as intelligence, genetics can still play a role in personality difference - Components of variation: o Genetic factors o Environment o Personal experiences 3) Evolution and Behaviour - Evolutionary psych
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