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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 – Memory.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 8 – Memory - Memory refers to the process that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information Memory As Information Processing - Can be crudely compared to a computer - Encoding getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that the brain can process o Visual  Icon o Auditory  Echo o Other senses such as smell and tactile are harder to encode and remember - Storage retaining information over time and storing it later - Retrieval pulling store information out when we need it o The human mind is not as exact as the computer; we routinely forget and distort information o Human memory is dynamic and very complex 1) Three–Component Model - Divided into three major components: sensory memory, short term/working memory, and long-term memory - Components are not specific to one type of structure within the brain, but rather involved interrelated neural sites - Sensory memory holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized. Composed of different subsystems o Sensory registers are initial information processors o Visual sensory register is called the iconic store o Echoic store is the auditory sensory register and lasts longer than iconic memory a) Short-Term/Working Memory - Short-Term/Working Memory small portion of information is held at any given time. Coined working memory as it is consciously processing, coding and working on information. - Once memory enters the sensory memory, it must be coded from short term to eventually long term - Memory codes are various representations of things we want to remember o Research suggests that phonological codes play an important role in short-term memory - Short-term memory can hold a limited amount of information at a time o Depending on the stimulus, people can‟t hold no more than 5-9 meaningful items in their short-term memory o Chunking is a memory aid in which individual items are combined into larger units to facilitate easier recall - Also limited to duration; usually about 20 seconds - Rehearsing information can extend the duration of short-term memory indefinitely - Maintenance rehearsal is the simple repetition of information - In contrast, elaborative rehearsal is focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know o Both types of rehearsal can keep information active, but elaborative rehearsal is more effecting in transferring information from short- term to long-term memory - Cognitive scientists see short-term memory as analogous to a librarian who is categorizing, cataloguing and cross-referencing new material - Baddeley proposed a model on how to maintain information o Information is put in an auditory working memory (phonological loop). Ex: repeating words o Visual-spatial working memory allows us to temporarily create a visual image, such as a mental map of a route to destination o Episodic buffer provides temporary storage space where information from long-term memory and from the phonological loop/or visuospatial subsystems can be integrated, manipulated and made available for conscious awareness o The final process is the central executive that directs the action. It decides how much attention to allocate to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal calls up information from long-term memory and integrates the input. - Acoustic Coding Words are coded for having the same sound o Ex: Cook, car and dish are coded for having the same sound o Book, bar and fish will interfere from allowing you to remember the original list b) Long-Term Memory - Vast library of durable memory - Research on word recall suggests that the serial position effect can influence memory o Primary effect the superior recall of early words o Recency effect the superior recall of the most recent words - According to the 3-stage model, the primary effect occurs due to the first few words entering short-term memory, being rehearsed quickly, then stored into long-term memory o However, as the list gets longer, the short-term memory becomes over capacitated and are less likely to be rehearsed and moved to long-term memory o Ultimately, the primary effect is due to long-term memory - Recency effect is based on short-term memory - Coded semantically unlike short term memory which is coded acoustically - Long-term memory is stored through memory consolidation and the reformation and connections of the neural networks Encoding: Entering Information - Also known as acquisition; encoding, putting information into the memory, memory trace, retention/storage 1) Effortful vs. Automatic Processing - Effortful encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention. o Ex: Studying, taking notes, memorizing phone numbers - Automatic Processing encoding that is unintentional and requires minimal attention o Ex: If I were to ask you what you did yesterday, you wouldn‟t remember 2) Levels of Processing - Levels of processing (Craik and Lockhart) state that the more we deeply process information, the better it will be remembered. - Sematic processing involves the deepest processing as it requires us to focus on the meaning of information o Ex: TABLE “Does the word fit in the sentence, „The man peeled the ____‟?” - Perceiving structural components of words involves shallow processing o Ex: POTATO “Is the word in capital letters?” - Although there has been intensive research on this, it is difficult to measure 3) Exposure and Rehearsal - Simple repeated exposure to a stimulus without actually trying to understand it represents shallow processing - On the other hand, rehearsal goes beyond exposure by trying to grasp the meaning of the information o Maintenance rehearsal allows information to be kept in short-term memory o Elaborative rehearsal focuses on the meaning of the information and involves deeper processing. This is more efficient in moving information to long-term memory. 4) Organization and Imagery - Imposing organization on a set of stimuli is an excellent way to enhance memory, as it enhances the meaningfulness of information and acts as a cue to jog the memory for information - Hierarchies a visual organization concept that uses the principle that memory is enhanced by association between concepts o Enhances understanding on how concepts relate to one another o Each category can serve as a cue that triggers our memory for the associated items - Chunking is the combination of individual items into a larger unit of meaning o Widens the information-bottleneck caused by the limited capacity of short-term memory - Mnemonic Devices Any type of memory aid o Does not reduce that amount of information needed to be encoded into memory, rather if reorganizes information to help retrieve information from long-term memory - Dual-coding theory encoding information using both verbal and non- verbal (ie. Visual) codes enhances memory, because odds are one or the other will be remembered o However, this theory is more applicable to concrete concepts (ie. Things) rather than abstract concepts (ie. Feelings) 5) How Prior Knowledge Shapes Encoding - Rather than trying to capture each precise moment or information, we usually just try to capture the gist of the event - Schemas are mental frameworks; an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world usually formed from experience o Illustrates how we perceive a stimulus shapes the way we mentally represent it in memory - Acquiring expert knowledge can be viewed as a process of developing schemas/mental framework that can help encode information into meaningful patterns - A study by Chase and Simon (1973) discovered that when chess pieces were arranged in meaningful positions, an expert player with a well- developed schema can easily reconstruct the arrangement rather than a beginner player who has no schema at all Storage: Retaining Information 1) Memory as a Network - Associative Networks A massive network of associated ideas and concepts, each concept being associated by a node o The closer the nodes, the stronger the association between each concepts - Spreading Activation/Priming The activation of one concept by another concept o Ex: The word “red” primes the node for “fire engine” - Cognitive biologists believe that each concept is represented by a particular pattern or set of nodes that become activated simultaneously by a concept. These are called neural networks - Concepts are better remembered when a structure is imposed on them 2) Types of Long-Term Memory - Declarative Memory involves factual knowledge and divided into two sub- categories: o Episodic memory Factual knowledge based on personal experiences o Semantic memory Factual knowledge about the world and language o Brain damage and amnesia victims tend to lose episodic memory, but retain semantic memory - Procedural memory is nondeclarative memory that is reflected in skills and actions o Ex: riding a bike, driving a car, writing o Reflected by classically conditioned responses - Explicit Memory Conscious memory retrieval, as by trying to recognize and recall something consciously o Recall would be stimulus presented to us o Recognition is stimulus we must retrieve ourselves - Implicit Memory When memory influences our behaviour without our conscious awareness o Ex: riding a bike, drying or performing any well-performed tasks o Priming can help implicit memory Retrieval: Accessing Information - Retrieval cue is any implicit or external stimulus that stimulates the activation of information stored in long-term memory 1) The Value of Multiple and Self-Generated Cues, and Distinctiveness - Self-generated and mul
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