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Chapter 4

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Psychology 1000
Derek Quinlan

CHAPTER FOURPhenotype the observable characteristics produced by that genetic endowmentGenotype the specific genetic makeup of the individualChromosome tightly coiled molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA that is partly covered by protein Genes the DNA portion of the chromosome carries the hereditary blueprint in units called genesPolygenic transmission a number of gene pairs combine their influences to create a single phenotype trait Recombinant DNA procedures researchers use certain enzymes to cut the long threadlike molecule of genetic DNA into pieces combine them with DNA from another organism and insert them into a host organism such as a bacteriumGene knockout procedure done with animals consists of altering a specific gene in a way that prevents it from carrying out its normal functionHeritability coefficient the extent to which variation in a particular characteristic within a group can be attributed to genetic factors is estimated statistically by a heritability coefficient Concordance cooccurrenceAdoption study a person who was adopted early in life is compared on some characteristic both with the biological parents with whom the person shares genetic endowment and with the adoptive parents with whom no genes are shared
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