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Psych 1000- Consciousness.pdf

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

States of Consciousness Consciousness • subjective and private • dynamic • self-reflective and central to our senses of “self” Measuring states of consciousness • self reports • physiological measures • behavioural measures Freud’s Levels of Consciousness The conscious mind “The tip of the iceberg” Current awareness of thoughts and perceptions The preconscious mind Outside current awareness Can be recalled under certain conditions The Unconscious mind Unavailable to consciousness Includes instincts such as sex drive and aggression States of Consciousness The Cognitive Unconscious Reisberg (1997): The cognitive unconscious works in harmony with our conscious thoughts Controlled processing: Voluntary use of attention and conscious processing Automatic processing: Activities carried out with little or no effort which may not require or give rise to conscious awareness The Emotional Unconscious Unconscious processes can affect emotion and motivation The Modular Mind Interacting “modules” or brain networks for sensation, perception, memory, emotions etc. alter our consciousness Circadian rhythms are daily Biological Cycles • are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei in the hypothalamus • environmental factors like the day-night cycle also affect circadian rhythms States of Consciousness Circadian Rhythm Disruption Seasonal Affective Disorder Tendency to become depressed during certain months of the year • • Linked to northern latitudes • More prevalent in Canada than the U.S. Jet lag • Oral Melatonin to reset circadian rhythm Nightshift work Shift to Daylight Savings (spring) leads to a temporary increase in accidental deaths • (Coren, 1966) States of Consciousness Stage 1 Theta waves Stage 2 Sleep spindles ç Stage 3 • Delta waves Stage 4 • Deep sleep Stage 4 Deep sleep States of Consciousness Rem Sleep • A typical night’s sleep Rem Sleep Characteristics of REM sleep • REM dreams are longer than non-REM (NREM) stages • Physiological arousal increases -Heart-rate quickens -Breathing more irregular and rapid -Brainwave activity resembles wakefulness -Genital arousal May be involved in memory consolidation States of Consciousness Sleep Deprivation • Short-term sleep deprivation Up to 45 hours without sleep • Long-term sleep deprivation More than 45 hours without sleep • Partial deprivation No more than 5 hrs./night for 1 or more nights Sleep loss affects mood, cognitive performance, and physical performance Theories of Sleep • Restoration Model - sleep allows us to recharge our bodies and recover from fatigue • Evolutionary/circadian rhythm model -Sleep’s main purpose is to increase a species’ chances of survival Sleep Disorders Insomnia: Chronic difficulty in falling asleep Narcolepsy: Sudden, uncontrollable sleep attacks Sleep apnea: Breathing stops and restarts during sleep Sleepwalking Nightmares and night terrors Dreaming We dream most when the brain is active (Antrobus, 1991, 1995) We dream more in REM than in NREM sleep REM sleep and dreaming States of Consciousness http://www.cogsci.soton.ac.uk/bbs/Archive/bbs.solms.html Brain activity is also higher during the final hours of sleep Why do we dream? Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory -->Wish fulfillment Activation-Synthesis Theory (Hobson & McCarley, 1977) 1. Brainstem bombards higher brain centers with random neural activity 2. Cerebral cortex interprets activity and creates a dream States of Consciousness Multiple Perspectives and Dreams • DREAMS may be viewed from at least a half a dozen different perspectives 1. Re-evocation of conscious experiences as they affect Overt Behavior • REM sleep occurs during dreams and both heart rate and respiration rate increase as though person was engaged in activity 2. Biological perspective-Brain Waves Brain waves are measured via electrical patterns of activity recorded via electrodes placed on the scalp brain waves during REM sleep are much more similar to conscious brain waves than are the brain waves during other stages of sleep. States of Consciousness Cognitive-Processes Dream Theories • Proposes that dreaming and waking thought are produced by the same mental systems in the brain Thus the same Cognitive, Motivational and Emotional areas that contribute to • conscious thought also are active for dreaming 3. Dreams as Thinking or Cognition • Similarity of wave patterns for awake & dreaming lend support to this view • Dreams contain information consistent with the dreamers own knowledge. • Persons with better mental imaging skills while awake can recall their dreams in greater detail. 4. Cultural Influences and Dreams • In North American culture dreams are viewed as nonsensical or unimportant, unless they are disturbing and repetitive. Content varies – in North American culture public nudity in a dream is viewed • as embarrassing – not so in cultures where clothes are absent or optional ( South American Yanamamo or Australian aboriginals) 5. As a resolution to internal conflict (Freud’s wish fulfillment) Dreams can serve as a way to acquire experiences which, while conscious,a re either unattainable or morally forbidden E.g., poor may dream of a life of wealth Dreams may also provide solutions to events which had unsatisfactory outcomes while conscious 6. Developmental aspects of Dreaming In early childhood dreams are not easily distinguished from reality – they may be perceived as physical 4 yr old reported that dreams could be tall – real real tall 6 -7 yr olds report dreams are sent to them through the air States of Consciousness 10- 11 yrs old comes North American & Euro centric realization that dreams “are in the head” (I.e., imaginary) Daydreaming Provides stimulation during periods of boredom • Allows us to experience positive emotions • Most persons report daydreaming involves pleasant situations and positive outcomes Drugs and the Brain How do drugs enter the body? 1) Oral Administration 2) Absorbtion through Skin (Transdermal) 3) Absorbtion Through Mucous Membranes 4) Injection ▯ Venous (i.v. drip or mainlining) ▯ Subcutaneous (Sub - Q, or Skin popping) ▯ Intramuscularly (i.m.) 5) Inhalation States of Consciousness How do drugs enter the brain? In order to have an effect on the nervous system, drugs must enter the brain. In order to do so, must be able to cross the blood brain barrier (bbb). Can cross by: ▯ 1) Diffusion ▯ 2) Active Transport In general, drugs which are more fat soluble pass the bbb more easily (i.e. heroin vs. morphine) States of Consciousness Exceptions Some areas are not protected by the bbb. Area postrema - important for inducing regurgitation when toxins are present in the bloodstream Pineal gland - needs access to blood to monitor hormone levels regulating the dark-light cycle. Pituitary Gland - Needs access to blood to monitor other hormone levels. States of Consciousness How do drugs exer
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