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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 – Memory Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Mark Cole

Chapter 8 – Memory Notes Memory – process that allows us to record and later retrieve experiences and info H.M - His temporal lobes removed, including his hippocampus to reduce his severe epileptic seizures - He was left with memory loss - He forgot events from the past 2 years before the surgery and now can’t for new memories - Typically, an experience of fact leaves his train of thought immediately Memory as Information Processing Encoding – getting info into the system by translating it into neural code that your brain processes Storage – retaining info over time and saving it for what you need it at a later date Retrieval – ability to pull info out of storage to use Three-Component Model Sensory Memory - Holds incoming sensory info just long enough for it to be recognized - Sensory registers – a subsystem which initially processes the info o Visual registers (iconic store) – very brief time period to retain complete info in purely visual form for more than a fraction of a second o Auditory sensory registers (echoic store) – last longer than iconic memory, about two seconds Short-Term/ Working Memory - Small portion of info enters short-term - Holds info that we are conscious of at any given time - Consciously processes codes and works on info - Memory codes – mental representations o Visual encoding – mental image o Phonological encoding – code something by sound (important for short-term memory) o Semantic encoding – focus on the meaning of a stimulus o Motor encoding – code patters of movement - Can only hold a limited amount of info (5 to 9 meanings OR on average, 7) o Examples) phone numbers - Good for problem solving and planning Rehearsing - Can extend its duration in short-term memory indefinitely - Maintenance rehearsal – simple repetition of information to transfer from short-term memory to long-term memory - Elaborative rehearsal – focusing on the meaning of info or relating it to other things we already know by organizing the info and thinking about how it applies to our own life (into long-term memory) Putting Short-term Memory to Work - Items that remain on the short-term loading dock long enough will eventually get transferred into long-term memory - Working memory stores the information, calls up previous knowledge from long-term memory, keeps tracks of what is happening, and coordinates the mental processes - Working memory is split into 4 components: o Auditory working memory – repetition o Visual spatial working memory – temporarily store and manipulate images and spatial info (mental maps) o Episodic buffer – temporary storage space where info from long- term memory forms a phonological loop (available for conscious awareness/ chunking) o Central executive - decides how much attention to allocate to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal (directs the action) Long-Term Memory - Library of more durable stored memories - We are capable of forming new long-term memories until we die (unlimited space) - A long-term memory can last a lifetime - Serial position effect – recall is influenced by a word’s position in a series of items o Primacy effect – recall of early words (transfer into long-term memory) o Recency effect – recall of the most recent words (short-term memory) Encoding: Entering Information Effortful Processing – encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention Automatic Processing – encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention - Info about frequency, spatial location, sequence, and timing are encoded automatically Hierachies - Takes advantage of the principle that memory is enhances by associations between concepts - Doesn’t reduce the amount of info to be remembered - Enhances our understanding of how these diverse elements are related and triggers our memory for the associated items before it Chunking - Combining individual items into a larger unit of meaning and it widens the information-processing bottleneck caused by limited capacity of short-term memory Acronyms - Combine one or more letters from each piece of information Mnemonic Devices - Mnemonics = improving memory - Any type of memory aid - Don’t reduce the amount of information you need to encode into memory - They reorganize information into more meaningful units and provide extra cues to help retrieve information from long-term memory Visual Imagery - Dual-coding theory – encoding info using both codes enhances memory because the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available later to support recall - Abstract concepts are easier to encode semantically than visually Schemas: Our Mental Organizers - Schema – a mental framework or representation; organized patter of thought about some aspect of the world - We form schemas through experience, and they can strongly influence the way we encode material in memory - How we perceive a stimulus shapes the way we mentally represent it in memory Schemas. Encoding, and Expertise - Expert knowledge – developing mental schemas that help to encode info into meaningful patters - Meaningful position – when chess pieces were arranged in actual positions on a chess board, the expert could apply well-developed schemas to recognize the patters and group the pieces together - Random position – when chess pieces were arranged randomly, the expert had no schemas and was in the same position as the novice Types of Long-Term Memory Declarative Memory – involves factual knowledge and includes two subcategories:: 1. Sodic Memory – store of factual knowledge concerning personal experiences - Episodes of our lives 2. Semantic Memory – general factual knowledge about the world and language, including memory for words and concepts - Demonstrate our knowledge, which we must “declare” - HM’s brain damage impaired both components of his declarative memory Procedural Memory – reflected in skills and actions - Skills that are expressed by doing things in particular situations - HM could not recall tracing the star, but each time he did it he got better and better at it Expli
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